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Produtividade e comércio: a importância do aprendizado no comércio exterior brasileiro

  • Hélio de Sousa Ramos Filho
  • Álvaro Barrantes Hidalgo
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    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os ganhos de produtividade gerados pelo processo de aprendizado das firmas brasileiras no comércio internacional. Usando o estimador Abadie-Imbens, foram avaliadas as diferenças de produtividade entre firmas exportadoras e não exportadoras, em diferentes momentos do tempo, controlando, porém, o processo de seleção. Os resultados mostram evidências favoráveis ao efeito aprendizado: as empresas exportadoras tornam-se em média 20,7% mais produtivas quando comparadas às não exportadoras com base no conceito de produtividade total dos fatores (PTF) e 26,3% mais produtivas no conceito de produtividade do trabalho. Observou-se, ainda, que os ganhos de produtividade dependem da distribuição espacial das firmas, do setor e das características específicas das indústrias. Os resultados obtidos estão em consonância com a evidência internacional sobre o assunto. Productivity and trade: the importance of learning in Brazilian foreign trade :: The aim of this paper is to analyze the productivity gains generated by the learning process of Brazilian firms in international trade. Using the Abadie-Imbens estimator, we evaluated productivity differences between exporting and non-exporting firms at different moments in time, controlling for the selection process. The results show evidence favorable to the learning effect: exporting companies become on average 20.7% more productive when compared to non-exporting firms based on the concept of total factor productivity and 26.3% more productive based on the concept of labor productivity. We also observed that the productivity gains depended on the spatial distribution of firms, industrial sector and specific characteristics of industries. The results are in line with international evidence on the subject.

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    Article provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada in its journal Pesquisa e Planejamento Econômico.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 1 (abr.)
    Pages: 203-222

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    Handle: RePEc:ppe:ppeart:y:2013:v:43:i:1:p:203-222
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