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Capitanias Hereditárias e desenvolvimento econômico: herança colonial sobre desigualdade e instituições

  • Enlinson Mattos
  • Thais Innocentinni
  • Yuri Benelli

Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os eventuais efeitos da herança colonial na formação dos municípios brasileiros sobre suas condições atuais de desigualdade de distribuição de terra e renda e sobre a qualidade das instituições. Em particular, empregam-se área, latitude, longitude e a data de fundação para identificar os municípios pertencentes aos territórios das Capitanias Hereditárias (CHs). Em seguida, busca-se estimar se esta característica histórica dos municípios está correlacionada com suas instituições atuais, considerando diversos controles, tais como: área proporcional da capitania; haver pertencido aos ciclos da cana e do ouro; estar no litoral; sua distância em relação a Portugal; tipo de solo; quantidade de chuva; altitude; temperatura média; e as variáveis socioeconômicas municipais. Os resultados sugerem de forma robusta que o município que pertenceu à área destinada às CHs (um aumento de um desvio-padrão) está associado a uma concentração maior de terras (Censo Agrícola de 1996), medida pelo índice de Gini (aumento de meio desvio-padrão), a menores gastos públicos locais e a menor persistência política. No entanto, não se encontrou associação robusta sobre os seguintes indicadores dos municípios brasileiros: desigualdade de renda, Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) municipal per capita, número de agências bancárias públicas, de cartórios e empresas públicas no município, nem na governança local e no acesso à justiça local. Capitanias Hereditarias and economic development: colonial heritage on inequality and institutions :: This study aims to analyze the possible effects of the colonial legacy in the formation of Brazilian municipalities on their current conditions of land and income inequality and on the quality of institutions. In particular, we employ area, latitude, longitude and date of foundation to identify the municipalities belonging to the Capitanias Hereditárias. Next we estimate whether this historical characteristic of the municipalities is correlated with current institutions of municipalities considering various controls, such as proportional area of Capitania, having belonged to the cycles of sugarcane and gold, to be at coast, distance from Portugal, soil type, amount of rain per year, altitude, average temperature, and municipal socioeconomic variables. The results suggest in a robust manner that the municipalities that belonged to the Capitanias Herditárias (increase in one standard deviation) is associated with a greater concentration of land (Agricultural Census 1996) as measured by the Gini index (increase in half of standard deviation), with a lower level of local public expenditure and less political persistence. However, we find no robust association of that historical characteristic with the following indicators: Inequality of income, municipal gross domestic product per capita, and number of public bank branches, notary and public businesses in the municipality, local governance and access to justice.

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Article provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada in its journal Pesquisa e Planejamento Econômico.

Volume (Year): 42 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 (dez.)
Pages: 433-472

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Handle: RePEc:ppe:ppeart:y:2012:v:42:i:3:p:433-472
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