- Abdul Halim Poh
- Mahmoud Moghavvemi
- Cherng Shii Leong
- Yee Ling Lau
- Alireza Safdari Ghandari
- Alexlee Apau
- Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan
Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average distance of the blobs within the frames against time forms a spectra where behavioral patterns can be observed directly, whether any collective effect is observed. With this method, 3D tracking will not be required and a more straightforward data output can be obtained.
Abdul Halim Poh & Mahmoud Moghavvemi & Cherng Shii Leong & Yee Ling Lau & Alireza Safdari Ghandari & Alexlee Apau & Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, 2017.
"Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes—Open source development,"
PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(2), pages 1-17, February.
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