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Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)


  • Min Kwon
  • Joon-Yeop Lee
  • Wang-Youn Won
  • Jae-Woo Park
  • Jung-Ah Min
  • Changtae Hahn
  • Xinyu Gu
  • Ji-Hye Choi
  • Dai-Jin Kim


Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. Methods: A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Results: Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p

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  • Min Kwon & Joon-Yeop Lee & Wang-Youn Won & Jae-Woo Park & Jung-Ah Min & Changtae Hahn & Xinyu Gu & Ji-Hye Choi & Dai-Jin Kim, 2013. "Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 8(2), pages 1-7, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:plo:pone00:0056936
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056936

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    1. Gong, Yaqi & Schroeder, Ashley & Plaisance, Patrick Lee, 2023. "Digital detox tourism: An Ellulian critique," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 103(C).
    2. Yu-Hsuan Lin & Li-Ren Chang & Yang-Han Lee & Hsien-Wei Tseng & Terry B J Kuo & Sue-Huei Chen, 2014. "Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 9(6), pages 1-5, June.
    3. Buctot, Danilo B. & Kim, Nami & Kim, Jinsoo Jason, 2020. "Factors associated with smartphone addiction prevalence and its predictive capacity for health-related quality of life among Filipino adolescents," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).
    4. Julia Machado Khoury & André Augusto Corrêa de Freitas & Marco Antônio Valente Roque & Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque & Maila de Castro Lourenço das Neves & Frederico Duarte Garcia, 2017. "Assessment of the accuracy of a new tool for the screening of smartphone addiction," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(5), pages 1-13, May.
    5. Fikret Soyer & Ersan Tolukan & Abdullah Dugenci, 2019. "Investigation of the Relationship between Leisure Satisfaction and Smartphone Addiction of University Students," Asian Journal of Education and Training, Asian Online Journal Publishing Group, vol. 5(1), pages 229-235.
    6. Tuğba Koç & Aykut Hamit Turan, 2021. "The Relationships Among Social Media Intensity, Smartphone Addiction, and Subjective Wellbeing of Turkish College Students," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer;International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. 16(5), pages 1999-2021, October.
    7. Ashraf Sharif & Saira Hanif Soroya & Shakil Ahmad & Khalid Mahmood, 2021. "Antecedents of Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites (SNSs): A Study of Facebook Users," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(3), pages 1-21, January.
    8. Eunsun Choi & Namje Park, 2021. "Can Online Education Programs Solve the Cyberbullying Problem? Educating South Korean Elementary Students in the COVID-19 Era," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(20), pages 1-15, October.
    9. Sophie H. Janicke-Bowles & Tess M. Buckley & Rikishi Rey & Tayah Wozniak & Adrian Meier & Anna Lomanowska, 2023. "Digital Flourishing: Conceptualizing and Assessing Positive Perceptions of Mediated Social Interactions," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 1013-1035, March.
    10. Qing Huang & Mingxin Hu & Hongliang Chen, 2021. "Exploring Stress and Problematic Use of Short-Form Video Applications among Middle-Aged Chinese Adults: The Mediating Roles of Duration of Use and Flow Experience," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(1), pages 1-15, December.
    11. Anna Zalewska & Monika Gałczyk & Marek Sobolewski & Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, 2021. "Depression as Compared to Level of Physical Activity and Internet Addiction among Polish Physiotherapy Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(19), pages 1-11, September.
    12. Aleksandra Nikolic & Bojana Bukurov & Ilija Kocic & Ivan Soldatovic & Sladjana Mihajlovic & Dejan Nesic & Milica Vukovic & Nikola Ladjevic & Sandra Sipetic Grujicic, 2022. "The Validity and Reliability of the Serbian Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale—Short Version," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(3), pages 1-11, January.
    13. Christian Montag & Bernd Lachmann & Marc Herrlich & Katharina Zweig, 2019. "Addictive Features of Social Media/Messenger Platforms and Freemium Games against the Background of Psychological and Economic Theories," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 16(14), pages 1-16, July.
    14. Simon Kloker, 2020. "Non-addictive Information Systems," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 549-562, June.
    15. Justin J. Nelson & Christopher M. Pieper, 2020. "Who's an iAddict? A Sociodemographic Exploration of Device Addiction Among American Adults," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 101(5), pages 2071-2084, September.
    16. Hye-Jin Kim & Jin-Young Min & Kyoung-Bok Min & Tae-Jin Lee & Seunghyun Yoo, 2018. "Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents’ smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(2), pages 1-13, February.
    17. Simon Kloker, 0. "Non-addictive Information Systems," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-14.
    18. Amelia Rahayu & Tia Rahmania, 2022. "Loneliness During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Its Effect On The Trend Towards Smartphone Addiction In Early Adulthood Who Works From Home," Social Values & Society (SVS), Zibeline International Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 1-2, January.
    19. Zubair Ahmed Ratan & Anne-Maree Parrish & Sojib Bin Zaman & Mohammad Saud Alotaibi & Hassan Hosseinzadeh, 2021. "Smartphone Addiction and Associated Health Outcomes in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(22), pages 1-17, November.
    20. Anna Irimiás & Tamás Csordás & Kornélia Kiss & Gábor Michalkó, 2021. "Aggregated Roles of Smartphones in Young Adults’ Leisure and Well-Being: A Diary Study," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(8), pages 1-13, April.
    21. Md Shamimul Islam & Noorliza Karia & Mahmudul Hasan Fouji & Jamshed Khalid & Muhammad Khaleel & Firdaus Ahmad Fauzi, 2019. "Smartphone Addiction: Proposing Ethical Codes for Minimizing Addiction Risk at Academic Institutions," Journal of Business, LAR Center Press, vol. 4(1), pages 9-16, January.
    22. Nisreen Al Battashi & Omar Al Omari & Murad Sawalha & Safiya Al Maktoumi & Ahmed Alsuleitini & Mohammad Al Qadire, 2021. "The Relationship Between Smartphone Use, Insomnia, Stress, and Anxiety Among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study," Clinical Nursing Research, , vol. 30(6), pages 734-740, July.
    23. Amelia Rahayu & Tia Rahmania, 2022. "Loneliness During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Its Effect On The Trend Towards Smartphone Addiction In Early Adulthood Who Works From Home," Social Values & Society (SVS), Zibeline International Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 1-2, January.
    24. Doris Jaalouk & Jocelyne Boumosleh, 2018. "Is Smartphone Addiction Associated with a Younger Age at First Use in University Students?," Global Journal of Health Science, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 10(2), pages 134-134, February.

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