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Trends in Female Employment at the Federal Government Level: A Critical Appraisal of 1983–1989


  • Hina Nazli

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Samina Nazli

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)


This paper focuses on two aspects. First, it looks at the trends in female employment at the federal level over a period of six years, from 1983 to 1989, based on data from the Federal Government’s Civil Servants Census Reports, using three years, 1983, 1986, 1989. The second aspect of the paper is to highlight the fact that not all the information that is collected is published gender-wise. This is very important from the point of view of working women as it can also have strong policy implications with regard to the advancement of women for which the Government has set up a separate ministry. The ignorance of the Ministry of Women’s Development about this aspect, that is, of available unpublished information, is surprising. The paper is structured as follows. After a brief discussion of data and methodology, the results are presented in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the data which are collected but not published at the disaggregate level which has adverse implications for women employees at the policy level. The conclusions and policy recommendations are presented in the final and fourth section of this paper. The data used in this paper are taken from the Government of Pakistan (1983, 1986, 1989). The statistics reported in these reports are classified by service groups into Secretariat, Attached Departments, Subordinate Offices, Other Offices, and in the Autonomous/Semi-Autonomous bodies by Basic Pay Scale (BPS) and gender. The Censuses show that for these years no female employee of the regular civil service is reported in BPS-22 for all the categories, and also none is reported in BPS 21 in 1989.

Suggested Citation

  • Hina Nazli & Samina Nazli, 1995. "Trends in Female Employment at the Federal Government Level: A Critical Appraisal of 1983–1989," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 34(4), pages 1041-1054.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:34:y:1995:i:4:p:1041-1054

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Balassa, Bela, 1978. "Exports and economic growth : Further evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 181-189, June.
    2. Michaely, Michael, 1977. "Exports and growth : An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 49-53, February.
    3. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
    4. Feder, Gershon, 1983. "On exports and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-2), pages 59-73.
    5. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    6. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    7. Jung, Woo S. & Marshall, Peyton J., 1985. "Exports, growth and causality in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-12.
    8. Kavoussi, Rostam M., 1984. "Export expansion and economic growth : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 241-250.
    9. Engle, Robert F. & Yoo, Byung Sam, 1987. "Forecasting and testing in co-integrated systems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 143-159, May.
    10. Fosu, Augustin Kwasi, 1990. "Exports and economic growth: The African case," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 831-835, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Irfan, 2010. "A Review of the Labour Market Research at PIDE 1957-2009," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2010:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi.

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