IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pal/jintbs/v40y2009i8p1241-1259.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding global flows of venture capital: Human networks as the “carrier wave” of globalization

Author

Listed:
  • Ravi Madhavan

    (Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA)

  • Akie Iriyama

    (School of Management, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA)

Abstract

Industry participants and observers view venture capital as fundamentally a local business. However, recent data show an increasing share of US venture capital investments flowing overseas. We suggest that cross-border venture capital flows are associated with the formation of “transnational technical communities” (TTCs), groups of immigrants active in both home- and host-country technical networks. Our results highlight the role of human networks as a mechanism of industry globalization, and support the view that TTCs are emerging economic actors in their own right.

Suggested Citation

  • Ravi Madhavan & Akie Iriyama, 2009. "Understanding global flows of venture capital: Human networks as the “carrier wave” of globalization," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1241-1259, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:40:y:2009:i:8:p:1241-1259
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jibs/journal/v40/n8/pdf/jibs20096a.pdf
    File Function: Link to full text PDF
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jibs/journal/v40/n8/full/jibs20096a.html
    File Function: Link to full text HTML
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tamim Bayoumi & Barry Eichengreen, 1997. "Is Regionalism Simply a Diversion? Evidence from the Evolution of the EC and EFTA," NBER Chapters,in: Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade Arrangements, NBER-EASE Volume 6, pages 141-168 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 209-234.
    3. Neary, J. Peter, 2009. "Trade costs and foreign direct investment," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 207-218, March.
    4. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    5. Leamer, Edward E. & Levinsohn, James, 1995. "International trade theory: The evidence," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1339-1394 Elsevier.
    6. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-481, August.
    7. Torsten Persson, 2001. "Currency unions and trade: how large is the treatment effect?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 16(33), pages 433-462, October.
    8. Morck, Randall & Yeung, Bernard, 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 165-187, April.
    9. J. Peter Neary, 2007. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1229-1257.
    10. Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 7-46, April.
    11. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-Jin, 1996. "Regional Trading Arrangements: Natural or Supernatural," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 52-56, May.
    12. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1997. "Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 72.
    13. Sang-Seung, Yi, 1996. "Endogenous formation of customs unions under imperfect competition: open regionalism is good," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1-2), pages 153-177, August.
    14. Michele Fratianni & John Pattison, 2001. "International Organisations in a World of Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons from Club Theory," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 333-358, March.
    15. Richard Pomfret, 2005. "Regional Trade Agreements," International Trade 0511002, EconWPA.
    16. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
    17. Richard Baldwin & Daria Taglioni, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," NBER Working Papers 12516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    19. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", pages 112-134.
    20. Alan Deardorff, 1998. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," NBER Chapters,in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 7-32 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Jon Haveman & David Hummels, 2004. "Alternative hypotheses and the volume of trade: the gravity equation and the extent of specialization," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 37(1), pages 199-218, February.
    22. Soloaga, Isidro & Alan Wintersb, L., 2001. "Regionalism in the nineties: what effect on trade?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-29, March.
    23. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1989. "The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 143-153, February.
    24. repec:fth:michin:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
    26. Crawford, Jo-Ann & Fiorentino, Roberto V., 2005. "The changing landscape of regional trade agreements," WTO Discussion Papers 8, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    27. Arvind Panagariya, 2000. "Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(2), pages 287-331, June.
    28. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-Jin, 1996. "Regional Trading Arrangements," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt5hf1z4rv, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    29. Andrew Rose, 2005. "Which International Institutions Promote International Trade?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 682-698, September.
    30. Robert C. Feenstra & James R. Markusen & Andrew K. Rose, 2001. "Using the gravity equation to differentiate among alternative theories of trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(2), pages 430-447, May.
    31. Crawford, Jo-Ann & Laird, Sam, 2001. "Regional trade agreements and the WTO1," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 193-211, July.
    32. John H Dunning & Masataka Fujita & Nevena Yakova, 2007. "Some macro-data on the regionalisation/globalisation debate: a comment on the Rugman/Verbeke analysis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(1), pages 177-199, January.
    33. John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
    34. Andriamananjara, Soamiely, 1999. "On the size and number of regional integration arrangements - a political economy model," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2117, The World Bank.
    35. Bikker, Jacob A, 1987. "An International Trade Flow Model with Substitution: An Extension of the Gravity Model," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 315-337.
    36. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2007. "Do free trade agreements actually increase members' international trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 72-95.
    37. Andrew K. Rose & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "National Money as a Barrier to International Trade: The Real Case for Currency Union," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 386-390, May.
    38. Bond, Eric W. & Syropoulos, Constantinos, 1996. "The size of trading blocs Market power and world welfare effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-4), pages 411-437, May.
    39. Carrere, Celine, 2006. "Revisiting the effects of regional trade agreements on trade flows with proper specification of the gravity model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 223-247, February.
    40. Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-116, March.
    41. J. P. Neary (ed.), 1995. "International Trade," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, volume 0, number 575, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lin, Xiaohua & Yang, Xiyan, 2017. "From human capital externality to entrepreneurial aspiration: Revisiting the migration-trade linkage," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 360-371.
    2. Larrañeta, Bárbara & Zahra, Shaker A. & González, José Luis Galán, 2012. "Enriching strategic variety in new ventures through external knowledge," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 401-413.
    3. Papastamatelou Julie & Busch Rainer & Ötken Begüm & Okan Elif Y. & Gassemi Karim, 2016. "Effects of Network Capabilities on Firm Performance across Cultures," International Journal of Management and Economics, De Gruyter Open, vol. 49(1), pages 79-105, March.
    4. Martinez, Candace & Cummings, Michael E. & Vaaler, Paul M., 2015. "Economic informality and the venture funding impact of migrant remittances to developing countries11Please contact Paul M. Vaaler regarding this paper. This research benefitted from a presentation at ," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, pages 526-545.
    5. Tykvová, Tereza & Schertler, Andrea, 2014. "Does Syndication With Local Venture Capitalists Moderate the Effects of Geographical and Institutional Distance?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 406-420.
    6. Li, Ji & Chu, Chris W.L. & Wang, Xinran & Zhu, Hong & Tang, Guiyao & Chen, Yuanyi, 2012. "Symbiotic ownership, cultural alignment, and firm performance: A test among international strategic alliances," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 987-997.
    7. Gammelgaard, Jens & McDonald, Frank & Stephan, Andreas & Tüselmann, Heinz & Dörrenbächer, Christoph, 2012. "The impact of increases in subsidiary autonomy and network relationships on performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 1158-1172.
    8. Gao, Lan & Liu, Xiaohui & Zou, Huan, 2013. "The role of human mobility in promoting Chinese outward FDI: A neglected factor?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 437-449.
    9. Cumming, Douglas & Zhang, Yelin, 2016. "Alternative investments in emerging markets: A review and new trends," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 1-23.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:40:y:2009:i:8:p:1241-1259. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.