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Timing of Entry in International Market: An Empirical Study of U.S. Fortune 500 Firms in China

Author

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  • Vibha Gaba

    (University of Oregon)

  • Yigang Pan

    (York University and University of Hong Kong)

  • Gerardo R Ungson

    (San Francisco State University)

Abstract

This study attempts to explain the timing of entry of firms in international markets. Based on the existing literature, we propose a framework that consists of firm-specific factors, industry/market factors, and host country factors. Empirical results, based on the entry information of U.S. Fortune 500 firms in China between 1979 and 1996, show that larger firms with greater level of internalization and scope economies are likely to enter this foreign market earlier. In addition, non-equity modes, competitors' behavior in the product market, and lower levels of country risk are significantly associated with early entry.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2002) 33, 39–55

Suggested Citation

  • Vibha Gaba & Yigang Pan & Gerardo R Ungson, 2002. "Timing of Entry in International Market: An Empirical Study of U.S. Fortune 500 Firms in China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(1), pages 39-55, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:33:y:2002:i:1:p:39-55
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    Cited by:

    1. Wooster, Rossitza B. & Paul, Donna L., 2016. "Leadership positioning among U.S. firms investing in China," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 319-332.
    2. Hung, Shih-Chang, 2005. "The plurality of institutional embeddedness as a source of organizational attention differences," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(11), pages 1543-1551, November.
    3. Jose L. Gonzalez-Pernia & Iñaki Peña-Legazkue, 2012. "Regional FDI, technological knowledge and Export-Oriented Entrepreneurs in Spain," ERSA conference papers ersa12p912, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Martin, Xavier, 2013. "Solving theoretical and empirical conundrums in international strategy research by matching foreign entry mode choices and performance," Other publications TiSEM 7645ea46-0b9a-4fc0-ae33-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    5. Cesaroni, Fabrizio & Giarratana, Marco S. & Martínez-Ros, Ester, 2012. "Technological capabilities and cost efficiency as antecedents of foreign market entry," MERIT Working Papers 049, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    6. Ma, Xufei & Ding, Zhujun & Yuan, Lin, 2016. "Subnational institutions, political capital, and the internationalization of entrepreneurial firms in emerging economies," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 843-854.
    7. Jiang, Ruihua Joy & Beamish, Paul W. & Makino, Shige, 2014. "Time compression diseconomies in foreign expansion," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 114-121.
    8. Gielens, K. & Dekimpe, M.G., 2004. "How To Seize a Window of Opportunity: The Entry Strategy of Retail Firms into Transition Economies," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-038-MKT, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    9. repec:eee:touman:v:59:y:2017:i:c:p:363-375 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Justin Tan & Yong Zeng, 2009. "A stage-dependent model of resource utilization, strategic flexibility, and implications for performance over time: Empirical evidence from a transitional environment," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 563-588, September.
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    13. repec:spr:manint:v:55:y:2015:i:1:d:10.1007_s11575-014-0230-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Najah Attig & Narjess Boubakri & Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedham, "undated". "International Diversification and Corporate Social Responsibility," Finance Working Papers 12-11/2013, School of Business Administration, American University of Sharjah.
    15. repec:spr:manint:v:54:y:2014:i:1:d:10.1007_s11575-013-0184-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Giarratana, Marco S. & Martínez Ros, Ester & Cesaroni, Fabrizio, 2010. "US market entry by Spanish pharmaceutical firms," DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB wb101103, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    17. Varma, Sumati, 2009. "The global start ups from Indian IT," MPRA Paper 22832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Wooster, Rossitza B. & Blanco, Luisa & Sawyer, W. Charles, 2016. "Equity commitment under uncertainty: A hierarchical model of real option entry mode choices," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 382-394.
    19. repec:spr:manint:v:48:y:2008:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-008-0105-x is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:spr:manint:v:47:y:2007:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-007-0054-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Najah Attig & Narjess Boubakri & Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedhami, 2016. "Firm Internationalization and Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 134(2), pages 171-197, March.
    22. Cuypers, I.R.P., 2009. "Essays on equity joint ventures, uncertainty and experience," Other publications TiSEM 8dc79e86-c625-467f-a450-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    23. Sels, A.T.H., 2006. "Foreign direct investment as an entry mode. An application in emerging economies," Other publications TiSEM 583ca9b5-1691-425d-8f77-0, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    24. Javalgi, Rajshekhar (Raj) G. & Deligonul, Seyda & Dixit, Ashutosh & Cavusgil, S. Tamer, 2011. "International Market Reentry: A Review and Research Framework," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 377-393, August.
    25. Valle Santos & Teresa García, 2011. "Business motivation and informational needs in internationalization," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 195-212, September.

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