IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Diagnosing Measurement Equivalence in Cross-National Research


  • Michael R Mullen

    (Florida Atlantic University)


Many researchers have pointed out that it is necessary to ensure measurement equivalence in cross-national comparative research. Three aspects of measurement equivalence, translation, metric, and calibration equivalence, are necessary to establish the cross-national reliability and validity of items used to measure theoretical constructs. This paper discusses these issues and proposes two recently developed empirical techniques, Multiple Group LISREL and Optimal Scaling, for use in diagnosing cross-national measurement equivalence. These techniques are illustrated by reanalysis of a pioneering U.S. and Japanese study. The two techniques yield convergent results, indicating measurement equivalence for some, but not all, ordinal-level items under consideration. The findings demonstrate that the proposed methods are useful diagnostic tools for exploring measurement equivalence. Several suggestions for reducing the likelihood of problems with measurement equivalence and a number of methods for dealing with items where lack of equivalence persists are also discussed.© 1995 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1995) 26, 573–596

Suggested Citation

  • Michael R Mullen, 1995. "Diagnosing Measurement Equivalence in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 26(3), pages 573-596, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:26:y:1995:i:3:p:573-596

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Link to full text PDF
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL:
    File Function: Link to full text HTML
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:26:y:1995:i:3:p:573-596. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.