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The Making of Conflict-Prone Development: Trade and Horizontal Inequalities in Peru

  • Jos� Carlos Orihuela

    (Pontificia Universidad Cat�lica del Per�, San Miguel, Per�)

L’importance de l’industrie extractive, les aspects exclusifs de la croissance tirée par l’exportation, et les politiques préférentielles dont bénéficie la région côtière du Pérou, constituent des éléments clés pour comprendre la nature du développement et des conflits dans ce pays. L’intégration accélérée du pays dans l’économie mondiale a transformé la structure sociale du pays, qui depuis l’ère coloniale est marquée par l’exclusion sociale. Le nouveau modèle commercial a amplifié les disparités entre les régions ainsi qu’entre les campagnes et les villes. La politique commerciale a suivi une trajectoire pendulaire marquée par un laissez faire qui a favorisé l’élite blanche de la région côtière. Au cours de ce processus de montée sociale, les peuples indigènes des Andes ont migré en masse vers la côte péruvienne et sont devenus des ‘cholos’; ils ont vu leurs conditions de vie s’améliorer, mais ont dû faire face, dans leur vie quotidienne, à diverses formes d’exclusion. ‘Indio’ est devenu synonyme de ‘arriéré’. Cette étiquette reste attachée aux populations vivant dans les Andes et dans la région amazonienne, et qui ne bénéficient pas du nouveau modèle commercial. L’expansion des exportations de ressources naturelles recrée et renforce des identités de groupes, et donc les écarts entre ces derniers, écarts qui donnent naissance à des trajectoires de développement sujettes au conflit.

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Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal European Journal of Development Research.

Volume (Year): 24 (2012)
Issue (Month): 5 (December)
Pages: 688-705

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Handle: RePEc:pal:eurjdr:v:24:y:2012:i:5:p:688-705
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