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Gendered Institutions and Cross-National Patterns of Business Creation for Men and Women


  • Amanda Elam

    (Babson College, Wellesley, MA)

  • Siri Terjesen

    (Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN)


In this article, we explore how gendered entrepreneurship rates are affected by both soft (values, beliefs and expectations) and hard (institutionalized norms and practices) measures of cultural institutions. We use data from the 2001 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor for 25 265 individuals in 11 countries to examine how institutional arrangements related to women's employment (role of occupational segregation, gender wage inequality, female business leadership and public childcare support) interact with individual-level perceptions in ways that increase women's start-up. Controlling for national variations in opportunity structure, our results show that gendered institutions (female business leadership, gender wage inequality and public expenditures on childcare) influence the decision to start a business indirectly through perceptions and gender.Dans cet article, nous examinons comment les taux d’entreprenariat féminin sont influencés par les institutions culturelles tant ‘douces’ (valeurs, croyances, attentes) que ‘dures’ (normes et pratiques institutionnalisées). Nous utilisons des données tirées de l’enquête Global Entrepreneurship Monitor de 2001 conduite sur 25 265 individus dans 11 pays différents afin de déterminer comment les arrangements institutionnels concernant le travail des femmes (rôle de la ségrégation professionnelle des femmes, les inégalités de salaires entre hommes et femmes, le leadership féminin en entreprise, les programmes publics d’accueil des enfants) influencent les perceptions individuelles de telles façons qu’elles augmentent le nombre de startups de femmes. En contrôlant les variations de structure d’opportunités qui existent entre les différents pays, nous montrons que les institutions (le leadership féminin en entreprise, les inégalités de salaires entre hommes et femmes, et les dépenses publiques consacrées à l’accueil des enfants ) influencent indirectement – à travers des perceptions concernant les sexes – la décision de créer une entreprise.

Suggested Citation

  • Amanda Elam & Siri Terjesen, 2010. "Gendered Institutions and Cross-National Patterns of Business Creation for Men and Women," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 22(3), pages 331-348, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:eurjdr:v:22:y:2010:i:3:p:331-348

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    Cited by:

    1. Saul Estrin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2011. "Institutions and female entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 397-415, November.
    2. Florian Noseleit, 2014. "The impact of childcare enrollment on women’s selection into self-employment," Working Papers 2014/15, Maastricht School of Management.
    3. R. Sandra Schillo & Ajax Persaud & Meng Jin, 2016. "Entrepreneurial readiness in the context of national systems of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 619-637, April.
    4. Welter, Friederike & Brush, Candida & De Bruin, Anne, 2014. "The gendering of entrepreneurship context," Working Papers 01/14, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    5. Jorge, Velilla, 2017. "Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data," MPRA Paper 79997, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Farzana Chowdhury & Siri Terjesen & David Audretsch, 2015. "Varieties of entrepreneurship: institutional drivers across entrepreneurial activity and country," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 121-148, August.
    7. Schmutzler, Jana & Andonova, Veneta & Díaz Serrano, Lluís, 2015. "When culture does (not) matter: role models and self-efficacy as drivers of entrepreneurial behavior," Working Papers 2072/247806, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    8. Suprinovič, Olga & Schneck, Stefan & Kay, Rosemarie, 2015. "Family-related employment interruptions and self-employment of women: Does policy matter?," Working Papers 03/15, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    9. Farzana Chowdhury & David Audretsch, 2014. "Institution as looting apparatus: impact of gender equality and institutions on female entrepreneurship," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 4(2), pages 207-225, December.
    10. repec:pal:eurjdr:v:30:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1057_s41287-017-0118-z is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:eee:jbvent:v:33:y:2018:i:4:p:534-550 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Diana M. Hechavarría, 2016. "The impact of culture on national prevalence rates of social and commercial entrepreneurship," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 1025-1052, December.
    13. repec:eee:jobuve:v:8:y:2017:i:c:p:105-113 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:kap:sbusec:v:48:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9789-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Siri A. Terjesen, 2016. "Conditions for high-potential female entrepreneurship," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 255-255, April.
    16. Claudia Álvarez & David Urbano & José Amorós, 2014. "GEM research: achievements and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 445-465, March.

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