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Public and Private Agricultural Extension: Partners or Rivals?


  • Umali-Deininger, Dina


This article examines the roles of the public and private sectors in agricultural extension. Extension services are classified according to their economic characteristics to identify areas where opportunities for private (for-profit and nonprofit) participation will arise. The author finds that commercialization of farm operations gives rise to demand for specialized client- and location-specific extension services that can be provided by private for profit firms, although the main buyers will likely be market-oriented medium and large farmers. Because of market failures, some types of extension services will require public funding--although not necessarily public delivery. A critical government role in a pluralistic extension system would be to provide the appropriate regulatory :framework to ensure fair competition and maintain quality standards. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Umali-Deininger, Dina, 1997. "Public and Private Agricultural Extension: Partners or Rivals?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(2), pages 203-224, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:12:y:1997:i:2:p:203-24

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Richard W. Waterman & B. Dan Wood, 1993. "Policy monitoring and policy analysis," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 685-699.
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    Cited by:

    1. Barrett, Christopher B. & Bachke, Maren E. & Bellemare, Marc F. & Michelson, Hope C. & Narayanan, Sudha & Walker, Thomas F., 2010. "Smallholder Participation in Agricultural Value Chains: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," MPRA Paper 27829, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Faye, Issa & Deininger, Klaus W., 2005. "Do new delivery systems improve extension access? Evidence from rural Uganda," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19405, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Robert E. Evenson & Germano Mwabu, 1998. "The Effects of Agricultural Extension on Farm Yields in Kenya," Working Papers 798, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    4. Abebe, Gumataw K. & Bijman, Jos & Kemp, Ron & Omta, Onno & Tsegaye, Admasu, 2013. "Contract farming configuration: Smallholders’ preferences for contract design attributes," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 14-24.
    5. Barrett, Christopher B. & Bachke, Maren E. & Bellemare, Marc F. & Michelson, Hope C. & Narayanan, Sudha & Walker, Thomas F., 2012. "Smallholder Participation in Contract Farming: Comparative Evidence from Five Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 715-730.
    6. Hu, Ruifa & Cai, Yaqing & Chen, Kevin Z. & Huang, Jikun, 2012. "Effects of inclusive public agricultural extension service: Results from a policy reform experiment in western China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 962-974.
    7. World Bank, 2003. "Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14879, The World Bank.
    8. Friis-Hansen, Esbern & Duveskog, Deborah, 2012. "The Empowerment Route to Well-being: An Analysis of Farmer Field Schools in East Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 414-427.
    9. Kalambokidis, Laura, 2003. "Identifying The Public Value In Extension Programs," Staff Papers 13409, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
    10. Marc F. Bellemare, 2010. "Agricultural extension and imperfect supervision in contract farming: evidence from Madagascar," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(6), pages 507-517, November.

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