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The Impact of T&V Extension in Africa: The Experience of Kenya and Burkina Faso


  • Bindlish, Vishva
  • Evenson, Robert E


Agricultural extension programs based on the Training and Visit (T&V) system are operating in some thirty-one Sub-Saharan African countries. Evidence from Kenya and Burkina Faso shows that T&V management enhances the effectiveness of extension and that such programs support agricultural growth and produce high returns on investments. The data indicate that areas served by extension have higher yields and that within these areas the highest yields are achieved by farmers who participate directly in extension activities. As a result, extension helps to close the gap between the yields attainable with existing technologies and those actually realized by farmers. Closing this gap improves agricultural productivity in the short run, but long-term increases in output in Sub-Saharan Africa will depend on the development of improved technologies that are relevant to local conditions. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Bindlish, Vishva & Evenson, Robert E, 1997. "The Impact of T&V Extension in Africa: The Experience of Kenya and Burkina Faso," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(2), pages 183-201, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:12:y:1997:i:2:p:183-201

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter Berck, 1979. "The Economics of Timber: A Renewable Resource in the Long Run," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(2), pages 447-462, Autumn.
    2. Page, John M., Jr. & Pearson, Scott R. & Leland, Hayne E., 1976. "Capturing Economic Rent From Ghanaian Timber," Food Research Institute Studies, Stanford University, Food Research Institute, issue 01.
    3. Hyde, William F & Amacher, Gregory S & Magrath, William, 1996. "Deforestation and Forest Land Use: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 223-248, August.
    4. Jeffrey R. Vincent, 1990. "Rent Capture and the Feasibility of Tropical Forest Management," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 66(2), pages 212-223.
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    6. William D. Nordhaus, 1992. "Lethal Model 2: The Limits to Growth Revisited," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(2), pages 1-60.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gautam, Madhur & Anderson, Jack R., 1999. "Reconsidering the evidence on returns to T&V extension in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2098, The World Bank.
    2. Faye, Issa & Deininger, Klaus W., 2005. "Do new delivery systems improve extension access? Evidence from rural Uganda," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19405, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Timothy G. Conley & Christopher R. Udry, 2010. "Learning about a New Technology: Pineapple in Ghana," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 35-69, March.
    4. Kondylis, Florence & Mueller, Valerie & Zhu, Jessica, 2017. "Seeing is believing? Evidence from an extension network experiment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 1-20.
    5. Mattia Romani, 2004. "The impact of extension services in times of crisis: Côte d’Ivoire (1997-2000)," Development and Comp Systems 0409053, EconWPA.
    6. Mariano, Marc Jim & Villano, Renato & Fleming, Euan, 2012. "Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of modern rice technologies and good management practices in the Philippines," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 41-53.
    7. Parman, John, 2012. "Good schools make good neighbors: Human capital spillovers in early 20th century agriculture," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 316-334.
    8. Krishnan, Pramila & Patnam, Manasa, 2013. "Neighbours and Extension Agents in Ethiopia: Who matters more for technology diffusion?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9539, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Madan M. Dey & Ferdinand J. Paraguas & Patrick Kambewa & Diemuth E. Pemsl, 2010. "The impact of integrated aquaculture-agriculture on small-scale farms in Southern Malawi," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(1), pages 67-79, January.
    10. Deschamps-Laporte, Jean-Philippe, 2013. "The impact of extension services on farming households in Western Kenya: A propensity score approach," Working Papers 2013:5, Örebro University, School of Business, revised 10 Jun 2013.

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