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Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

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  • Nadia Belhaj Hassine

Abstract

The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of opportunity were fairly stable while earnings differentials widened markedly, leading to a decline in the share of inequality attributable to opportunities. Father's background and geographic origins had the largest effect on earnings, although the impact of mother's education has risen in recent years. The degree of inequality of opportunity did not differ significantly by gender or rural–urban area, although the incidence was lower for men and for rural areas. The results indicate an increase in inequality of opportunity across age groups, but there is some evidence that opportunity differentials have been declining for the oldest generation. Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press.

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  • Nadia Belhaj Hassine, 2012. "Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 26(2), pages 265-295.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:26:y:2012:i:2:p:265-295
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/wber/lhr046
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    1. François Bourguignon & Francisco Ferreira & Michael Walton, 2007. "Equity, efficiency and inequality traps: A research agenda," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 5(2), pages 235-256, August.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/1552 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Vito Peragine, 2004. "Measuring and implementing equality of opportunity for income," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 22(1), pages 187-210, February.
    4. François Bourguignon & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Marta Menéndez, 2007. "Inequality Of Opportunity In Brazil," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(4), pages 585-618, December.
    5. Checchi, Daniele & Peragine, Vito, 2005. "Regional Disparities and Inequality of Opportunity: The Case of Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 1874, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Vito Peragine, 2015. "Equality of opportunity: Theory and evidence," Working Papers 359, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    2. Luis F. Lopez-Calva, 2012. "Declining Income Inequality in Brazil: The Proud Outlier," World Bank - Inequality in Focus, The World Bank, vol. 1(1), pages 5-8, April.
    3. Brunori, Paolo & Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Peragine, Vito, 2013. "Inequality of opportunity, income inequality and economic mobility : some international comparisons," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6304, The World Bank.
    4. Pedro Olinto & Jaime Saavedra, 2012. "An Overview of Global Income Inequality Trends," World Bank - Inequality in Focus, The World Bank, vol. 1(1), pages 1-4, April.
    5. Magda Kandil & Nazire Nergiz Dincer, 2008. "A comparative analysis of exchange rate fluctuations and economic activity: The cases of Egypt and Turkey," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 136-159, October.
    6. Ana Suárez Álvarez & Ana Jesús López Menéndez, 2016. "Inequality of opportunity and income inequality in Spain: An analysis over time," Working Papers 423, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    7. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Lakner, Christoph & Lugo, Maria Ana & Özler, Berk, 2014. "Inequality of Opportunity and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 8243, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Ishac Diwan, 2013. "Understanding Revolution In The Middle East: The Central Role Of The Middle Class," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 5(01), pages 1-30.
    9. David Orlando Ruiz Castro, 2011. "Desigualdad de Oportunidades en Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO-CIDSE 011061, UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE.
    10. Van de gaer, Dirk & Ramos, Xavier, 2015. "Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity Based on Counterfactuals," IZA Discussion Papers 9582, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Ishac Diwan, 2013. "Who are the Democrats? Leading Opinions in the Wake of Egypt’s 2011 Popular Uprisings," CID Working Papers 256, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    12. Francisco H.G. Ferreira, 2012. "Inequality of Opportunity Around the World: What Do We Know So Far?," World Bank - Inequality in Focus, The World Bank, vol. 1(1), pages 8-11, April.
    13. Paul Cichello & Hala Abou-Ali & Daniela Marotta, 2013. "What happened to real earnings in Egypt, 2008 to 2009?," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-38, December.
    14. Ragui Assaad & Caroline Krafft, 2013. "The Egypt labor market panel survey: introducing the 2012 round," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-30, December.
    15. Yosr Abid & Cathal O'Donoghue & Denisa Sologon, 2016. "Exploring the Determinants of Welfare Distribution in Tunisia and Egypt Using a Welfare Generation Model," Working Papers 1009, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2016.
    16. Hassine, Nadia Belhaj, 2014. "Economic inequality in the Arab region," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6911, The World Bank.
    17. World Bank, 2015. "Tanzania Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 21871, The World Bank.

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