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Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil


  • André Portela Souza


An extensive survey data set of Brazilian households is used to test whether intrahousehold gender bias affects the decisions of mothers and fathers to send their sons and daughters to work and to school. An intrahousehold allocation model is examined in which fathers and mothers may affect the education investment and the child labor participation of their sons and daughters differently because of differences in parental preferences or differences in how additional schooling affects sons' and daughters' acquisition of human capital. Brazilian household survey data for 1998 are used to estimate the impact of each parent's education on the labor market participation and school attendance of their sons and daughters. For labor market participation, the father's education has a greater negative impact than the mother's education on the labor status of sons. The father's education also has a greater impact on sons' labor status than on daughters'. For schooling decisions, the mother's education has a greater positive impact than the father's education on daughters' school attendance, but fathers have a greater positive impact on sons' school attendance than on daughters'. Copyright The Author 2007. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / the world bank . All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:, Oxford University Press.

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  • André Portela Souza, 2007. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 301-316, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:21:y:2007:i:2:p:301-316

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Sudha Narayanan & Sowmya Dhanraj, 2013. "Child Work and Schooling in Rural North India: What do Time Use Data Say about Tradeoffs and Drivers of Human Capital Investment?," Working Papers id:5597, eSocialSciences.
    3. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2013. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 118-131.
    4. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2012. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from a natural quasi-experiment in Senegal," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126856, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Heather Congdon Fors, 2012. "Child Labour: A Review Of Recent Theory And Evidence With Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 570-593, September.
    6. repec:pje:journl:article16winiv is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Lutfunnahar Begum & Philip J. Grossman & Asadul Islam, 2014. "Parental Attitude and Investment in Children’s Education and Health in Developing Countries," Monash Economics Working Papers 30-14, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    8. Delphine Boutin, 2012. "Family farming, child labour and the wealth paradox: evidence from Mali," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(4), pages 3471-3479.
    9. Boris Branisa & Stephan Klasen & Maria Ziegler, 2009. "Why we should all care about social institutions related to gender inequality," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 15, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    10. Seth R. Gitter & Bradford L. Barham, 2008. "Women's Power, Conditional Cash Transfers, and Schooling in Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 271-290, May.
    11. Chiwaula, Levison/S, 2009. "Child labour and poverty linkages: A micro analysis from rural Malawian data," MPRA Paper 25915, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2009.
    12. L. Guarcello & S. Lyon, 2003. "Children's work and water access in Yemen," UCW Working Paper 53, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    13. Emerson, Patrick M. & Souza, André Portela, 2008. "Birth Order, Child Labor, and School Attendance in Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1647-1664, September.
    14. Webbink, Ellen & Smits, Jeroen & de Jong, Eelke, 2012. "Hidden Child Labor: Determinants of Housework and Family Business Work of Children in 16 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 631-642.
    15. Horowitz, Andrew W. & Souza, André Portela, 2011. "The impact of parental income on the intra-household distribution of school attainment: A measurement strategy and evidence," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 1-18, February.
    16. Keita, Moussa, 2014. "Contribution des inobservables aux disparités de genre dans la scolarisation et le travail des enfants au Mali
      [Contribution of unobservables to gender disparities in schooling and child labor in M
      ," MPRA Paper 57532, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. repec:oup:wbecrv:v:30:y:2017:i:supplement_1:p:s137-s144. is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Huisman, Janine & Smits, Jeroen, 2009. "Effects of Household- and District-Level Factors on Primary School Enrollment in 30 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 179-193, January.
    19. Caio Piza & André Portela Souza, 2017. "The Causal Impacts of Child Labor Law in Brazil: Some Preliminary Findings," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 30(Supplemen), pages 137-144.
    20. Santiago Acerenza & Néstor Gandelman, 2017. "Household Education Spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Income and Expenditure Surveys," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 98120, Inter-American Development Bank.
    21. VAN DEN BROECK, Goedele & MAERTENS, Miet, 2015. "Does Off-farm Employment Make Women in Rural Senegal Happy?," Working Papers 232593, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.

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