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Cognitive Limitation and Investment Performance: Evidence from Limit Order Clustering


  • Wei-Yu Kuo
  • Tse-Chun Lin
  • Jing Zhao


We hypothesize that cognitive limitation may be manifested in a disproportionately large volume of limit orders submitted at round-number prices if investors use these numbers as cognitive shortcuts. Using detailed limit order data in the Taiwan Futures Exchange, we find that investors with lower cognitive abilities, defined as higher limit order submission ratios at round numbers, suffer greater losses in their round-numbered and non-round-numbered limit orders, market orders, and round-trip trades. The positive correlation between cognitive ability and investment performance is monotonic and robust across futures and options markets. In addition, past trading experience helps mitigate cognitive limitation.

Suggested Citation

  • Wei-Yu Kuo & Tse-Chun Lin & Jing Zhao, 2015. "Cognitive Limitation and Investment Performance: Evidence from Limit Order Clustering," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(3), pages 838-875.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:28:y:2015:i:3:p:838-875.

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    Cited by:

    1. Gao, Shenghao & Lu, Ruichang & Ni, Chenkai, 2019. "Institutional investors’ cognitive constraints during initial public offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 108(C).
    2. Chen, Tao, 2019. "Trade-size clustering and price efficiency," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 195-203.
    3. Chen, Tao, 2018. "Round-number biases and informed trading in global markets," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 105-117.
    4. Eid, Nourhan & Maltby, Josephine & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2016. "Income Rounding and Loan Performance in the Peer-to-Peer Market," MPRA Paper 72852, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Gao, Shenghao & Meng, Qingbin & Chan, Jesse Y. & Chan, Kam C., 2018. "Cognitive reference points, institutional investors' bid prices, and IPO pricing: Evidence from IPO auctions in China," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 124-140.
    6. Brown, Alasdair & Yang, Fuyu, 2016. "Limited cognition and clustered asset prices: Evidence from betting markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 27-46.
    7. Utpal Bhattacharya & Wei-Yu Kuo & Tse-Chun Lin & Jing Zhao, 2018. "Do Superstitious Traders Lose Money?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(8), pages 3772-3791, August.
    8. Donald Lien & Pi-Hsia Hung & Chiu-Ting Pan, 2020. "Price limit changes, order decisions, and stock price movements: an empirical analysis of the Taiwan Stock Exchange," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 55(1), pages 239-268, July.
    9. Eric C. Chang & Tse-Chun Lin & Yan Luo & Jinjuan Ren, 2019. "Ex-Day Returns of Stock Distributions: An Anchoring Explanation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(3), pages 1076-1095, March.
    10. Atilgan, Yigit & Demirtas, K. Ozgur & Simsek, Koray D., 2016. "Derivative markets in emerging economies: A survey," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 88-102.
    11. Liu, Jinzhao & Gao, Shenghao & Zhou, Jun, 2019. "Clustering and discounting in auction-style SEOs – Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).

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