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Side-by-Side Management of Hedge Funds and Mutual Funds


  • Tom Nohel
  • Z. Jay Wang
  • Lu Zheng


We examine situations where the same fund manager simultaneously manages mutual funds and hedge funds. We refer to this as side-by-side management. We document 344 such cases involving 693 mutual funds and 538 hedge funds. Proponents of this practice argue that it is essential to hire and retain star performers. Detractors argue that the temptation for abuse is high, and the practice should be banned. Our analysis based on various performance metrics shows that side-by-side mutual fund managers significantly outperform peer funds, consistent with this privilege being granted primarily to star performers. Interestingly, side-by-side hedge fund managers are at best on par with their style category peers, casting further doubt on the idea that conflicts of interest undermine mutual fund investors. Thus, we find no evidence of welfare loss for mutual fund investors due to exploitation of conflicts of interest. The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Tom Nohel & Z. Jay Wang & Lu Zheng, 2010. "Side-by-Side Management of Hedge Funds and Mutual Funds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(6), pages 2342-2373, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:23:y:2010:i:6:p:2342-2373

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    Cited by:

    1. Jacob, Martin & Johan, Sofia & Schweizer, Denis & Zhan, Feng, 2016. "Corporate finance and the governance implications of removing government support programs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 35-47.
    2. repec:wsi:qjfxxx:v:07:y:2017:i:03:n:s2010139217500094 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Chen, Hsiu-Lang & Gao, Sheldon & Hu, Xiaoqing, 2012. "Closing and cloning in open-end mutual funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1210-1223.
    4. repec:bap:journl:180201 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Mason, Andrew & Agyei-Ampomah, Sam & Skinner, Frank, 2016. "Realism, skill, and incentives: Current and future trends in investment management and investment performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 31-40.
    6. patel, saurin & sarkissian, sergei, 2012. "To Group or Not to Group? Evidence from Mutual Funds," MPRA Paper 38496, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Chan, Chia-Ying & Chen, Hsuan-Chi & Chiang, Yu Hsuan & Lai, Christine W., 2017. "Fund selection in target date funds," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 197-209.
    8. Casavecchia, Lorenzo & Tiwari, Ashish, 2016. "Cross trading by investment advisers: Implications for mutual fund performance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 99-130.
    9. Vikas Agarwal & Wei Jiang & Yuehua Tang & Baozhong Yang, 2013. "Uncovering Hedge Fund Skill from the Portfolio Holdings They Hide," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(2), pages 739-783, April.
    10. repec:eee:jfinec:v:127:y:2018:i:3:p:567-587 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Agarwal, Vikas & Fos, Vyacheslav & Jiang, Wei, 2012. "Inferring reporting biases in hedge fund databases from hedge fund equity holdings," CFR Working Papers 10-08 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    12. Joenväärä, Juha & Kosowski, Robert, 2015. "Effect of Regulatory Constraints on Fund Performance: New Evidence from UCITS Hedge Funds," CEPR Discussion Papers 10577, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Jiao, Yawen & Ye, Pengfei, 2014. "Mutual fund herding in response to hedge fund herding and the impacts on stock prices," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 131-148.
    14. Agarwal, Vikas & Ma, Linlin & Mullally, Kevin, 2015. "Managerial multitasking in the mutual fund industry," CFR Working Papers 13-10 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    15. Agarwal, Vikas & Lu, Yan & Ray, Sugata, 2014. "Under one roof: A study of simultaneously managed hedge funds and funds of hedge funds," CFR Working Papers 14-13, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    16. Godfrey Charles-Cadogan, 2012. "Alpha Representation For Active Portfolio Management and High Frequency Trading In Seemingly Efficient Markets," Papers 1206.2662,
    17. G. Charles-Cadogan, 2012. "Active Portfolio Management, Positive Jensen-Jarrow Alpha, and Zero Sets of CAPM," Papers 1206.4562,
    18. Karagiannidis, Iordanis, 2012. "The effect of management team characteristics on risk-taking and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 153-158.
    19. repec:eee:jfinec:v:128:y:2018:i:3:p:535-557 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Agarwal, Vikas & Ma, Linlin, 2013. "Managerial multitasking in the mutual fund industry," CFR Working Papers 13-10, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    21. Chia-Ying Chan & Christine W. Lai & Liang-Chung Lee, 2017. "Strategic Choice of Risk: Evidence from Mutual Fund Families," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 125-163, February.

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