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Stock and Option Grants with Performance-based Vesting Provisions

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  • Carr Bettis
  • John Bizjak
  • Jeffrey Coles
  • Swaminathan Kalpathy

Abstract

We assemble a sample of 983 equity-based awards that include either an accelerated- or a contingent-vesting provision tied to firm performance and explore the frequency, contractual nature, usage, and implications of such awards. We find that performance-vesting (p-v) provisions specify meaningful performance hurdles and provide significant incentives for executives. The propensity to use p-v provisions is positively related to the arrival of a new CEO and the proportion of outsiders on the board of directors and negatively related to prior stock performance. Performance-vesting firms have significantly better subsequent operating performance than control firms. Abnormal accounting performance does not arise from earnings management or discernible differences in financial or investment policy. The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org., Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Carr Bettis & John Bizjak & Jeffrey Coles & Swaminathan Kalpathy, 2010. "Stock and Option Grants with Performance-based Vesting Provisions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3849-3888, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:23:y:2010:i:10:p:3849-3888
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    Cited by:

    1. Carola Frydman & Dirk Jenter, 2010. "CEO Compensation," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 2(1), pages 75-102, December.
    2. Alex Edmans & Vivian W. Fang & Katharina A. Lewellen, 2013. "Equity Vesting and Managerial Myopia," NBER Working Papers 19407, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. King, Timothy & Srivastav, Abhishek & Williams, Jonathan, 2016. "What's in an education? Implications of CEO education for bank performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 287-308.
    4. Larcker, David F. & McCall, Allan L. & Ormazabal, Gaizka, 2012. "The Economic Consequences of Proxy Advisor Say-on-Pay Voting Policies," Research Papers 2105, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    5. repec:eee:corfin:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:99-125 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Alex Edmans & Xavier Gabaix, 2016. "Executive Compensation: A Modern Primer," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 1232-1287.
    7. Susana Alvarez-Diez & J. Samuel Baixauli-Soler & Maria Belda-Ruiz, 2016. "Early Exercise Behaviour in Performance-vested Stock Option Grants," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, pages 55-78.
    8. Fang, Hongyan & Nofsinger, John R. & Quan, Juan, 2015. "The effects of employee stock option plans on operating performance in Chinese firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 141-159.
    9. Edmans, Alex & Gabaix, Xavier & Sadzik, Tomasz & Sannikov, Yuliy, 2009. "Dynamic Incentive Accounts," CEPR Discussion Papers 7497, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. David F. Larcker & Allan L. McCall & Gaizka Ormazabal, 2015. "Outsourcing Shareholder Voting to Proxy Advisory Firms," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(1), pages 173-204.
    11. Korczak, Piotr & Liu, Xicheng, 2014. "Managerial shareholding policies and retention of vested equity incentives," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, pages 116-129.
    12. Anup Agrawal & Tommy Cooper & Qin Lian & Qiming Wang, 2013. "Common Advisers in Mergers and Acquisitions: Determinants and Consequences," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(3), pages 691-740.
    13. Alex Edmans & Luis Goncalves-Pinto & Yanbo Wang & Moqi Xu, 2014. "Strategic News Releases in Equity Vesting Months," NBER Working Papers 20476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Gillan, Stuart L. & Nguyen, Nga Q., 2016. "Incentives, termination payments, and CEO contracting," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 445-465.
    15. repec:eee:jfinec:v:124:y:2017:i:2:p:307-330 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Abudy, Menachem (Meni) & Benninga, Simon, 2016. "Valuing restricted stock grants to non-executive employees," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, pages 33-51.
    17. Cronqvist, Henrik & Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger, 2013. "CEO contract design: How do strong principals do it?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, pages 659-674.
    18. Kini, Omesh & Williams, Ryan, 2012. "Tournament incentives, firm risk, and corporate policies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(2), pages 350-376.
    19. repec:bla:abacus:v:52:y:2016:i:4:p:685-771 is not listed on IDEAS

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