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When Shareholders Are Creditors: Effects of the Simultaneous Holding of Equity and Debt by Non-commercial Banking Institutions


  • Wei Jiang
  • Kai Li
  • Pei Shao


This article provides a comprehensive analysis of a new and increasingly important phenomenon: the simultaneous holding of both equity and debt claims of the same company by non-commercial banking institutions ("dual holders"). The presence of dual holders offers a unique opportunity to assess the existence and magnitude of shareholder-creditor conflicts. We find that syndicated loans with dual holder participation have loan yield spreads that are 18--32 bps lower than those without. The difference remains economically significant after controlling for the selection effect. Further investigation of dual holders' investment horizons and changes in borrowers' credit quality lends support to the hypothesis that incentive alignment between shareholders and creditors plays an important role in lowering loan yield spreads. The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Wei Jiang & Kai Li & Pei Shao, 2010. "When Shareholders Are Creditors: Effects of the Simultaneous Holding of Equity and Debt by Non-commercial Banking Institutions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3595-3637, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:23:y:2010:i:10:p:3595-3637

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    Cited by:

    1. Bodnaruk, Andriy & Rossi, Marco, 2016. "Dual ownership, returns, and voting in mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 58-80.
    2. repec:eee:jfinin:v:31:y:2017:i:c:p:77-92 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Lim, Jongha & Minton, Bernadette A. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2014. "Syndicated loan spreads and the composition of the syndicate," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(1), pages 45-69.
    4. Daniel Sámano Peñaloza, 2011. "In the quest for macroprudential policy tools," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2011eng, enero-jun.
    5. Jongha Lim & Bernadette A. Minton & Michael S. Weisbach, 2012. "Equity-Holding Institutional Lenders: Do they Receive Better Terms?," NBER Working Papers 17856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Hasan, Iftekhar & O Brien, Jonathan & Ye, Pengfei, 2013. "What types of bondholders impede corporate innovative activities?," Research Discussion Papers 23/2013, Bank of Finland.
    7. Quijano, Margot, 2013. "Financial fragility, uninsured deposits, and the cost of debt," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 159-175.
    8. Luc Renneboog & Peter G. Szilagyi & Cara Vansteenkiste, 2017. "Creditor rights, claims enforcement, and bond performance in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 48(2), pages 174-194, February.
    9. repec:eee:finana:v:56:y:2018:i:c:p:93-111 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Li, Yutao & Saunders, Anthony & Shao, Pei, 2015. "Did Regulation Fair Disclosure affect credit markets?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 46-59.
    11. Liqiang Chen, 2014. "CEO Risk-taking Incentives and Bank Loan Syndicate Structure," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(9-10), pages 1269-1308, November.
    12. Li, Kai & Wang, Wei, 2016. "Debtor-in-possession financing, loan-to-loan, and loan-to-own," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 121-138.
    13. Pan, Xiaofei & Tian, Gary Gang, 2015. "Does banks’ dual holding affect bank lending and firms’ investment decisions? Evidence from China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 406-424.
    14. Vikas Agarwal & Costanza Meneghetti, 2011. "The role of hedge funds as primary lenders," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 241-261, July.
    15. Indraneel Chakraborty & Michael Ewens, "undated". "Does Security Choice Matter in Venture Capital? The Case of Venture Debt," GSIA Working Papers 2012-E35, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    16. Joel M. Vanden, 2016. "Optimal capital structures for private firms," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 245-273, May.
    17. Bastian von Beschwitz & Daniel Foos, 2016. "Banks' Equity Stakes and Lending : Evidence from a Tax Reform," International Finance Discussion Papers 1183, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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