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Loyalty-Based Portfolio Choice

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  • Lauren Cohen

Abstract

I evaluate the effect of loyalty on individuals' portfolio choice using a unique dataset of retirement contributions. I exploit the statutory difference that, in 401(k) plans, stand-alone employees can invest directly in their division, while conglomerate employees must invest in the entire firm, including all unrelated divisions. Consistent with loyalty, employees of stand-alone firms invest 10 percentage points (75%) more in company stock than conglomerate employees. Support is also found using variation in loyalty between different groups of employees, across and within firms. The cost to employees of loyalty is large, amounting to nearly a 20% loss in retirement income. The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Lauren Cohen, 2009. "Loyalty-Based Portfolio Choice," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 1213-1245, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:22:y:2009:i:3:p:1213-1245
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/rfs/hhn012
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    Cited by:

    1. Arno Riedl & Paul Smeets, 2013. "Why Do Investors Hold Socially Responsible Mutual Funds?," CESifo Working Paper Series 4403, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Ilona Babenko & Rik Sen, 2016. "Do Nonexecutive Employees Have Valuable Information? Evidence from Employee Stock Purchase Plans," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(7), pages 1878-1898, July.
    3. repec:pal:assmgt:v:18:y:2017:i:7:d:10.1057_s41260-017-0054-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Elina Pradkhan, 2016. "Impact of culture and patriotism on home bias in bond portfolios," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 265-301, March.
    5. Herskovic, Bernard & Kelly, Bryan & Lustig, Hanno & Van Nieuwerburgh, Stijn, 2016. "The common factor in idiosyncratic volatility: Quantitative asset pricing implications," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 249-283.
    6. Riedl, A.M. & Smeets, P.M.A., 2013. "Social preferences and portfolio choice," Research Memorandum 051, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
    7. Xie, Jun & Yang, Chunpeng, 2013. "Shouldn't all eggs be putted in one basket? A portfolio model based on investor sentiment and inertial thinking," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 682-688.
    8. Adhikari, Hari P. & Choi, Wonseok & Sah, Nilesh B., 2017. "That is what friends do: employee friendliness and innovation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 65-76.
    9. Aspara, Jaakko & Chakravarti, Amitav & Hoffmann, Arvid O. I., 2015. "Focal versus background goals in consumer financial decision-making," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 64129, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9834-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Guiso, Luigi & Sodini, Paolo, 2013. "Household Finance: An Emerging Field," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    12. Choi, Nicole & Fedenia, Mark & Skiba, Hilla & Sokolyk, Tatyana, 2017. "Portfolio concentration and performance of institutional investors worldwide," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 189-208.
    13. Doriana Ruffino, 2014. "Resuscitating Businessman Risk: A Rationale for Familiarity-Based Portfolios," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(1), pages 107-130, January.
    14. Galit Klein & Ze’ev Shtudiner, 2016. "Trust in others: does it affect investment decisions?," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(5), pages 1949-1967, September.
    15. Henry L. Friedman & Mirko S. Heinle, 2016. "Taste, information, and asset prices: implications for the valuation of CSR," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 740-767, September.
    16. McQueen, Grant & Stenkrona, Anders, 2012. "The home-institution bias," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1627-1638.
    17. Cooney, John W. & Madureira, Leonardo & Singh, Ajai K. & Yang, Ke, 2015. "Social ties and IPO outcomes," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 129-146.
    18. Masakure, Oliver, 2016. "The effect of employee loyalty on wages," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 274-298.
    19. Nathan Mauck & S. McKay Price, 2017. "Determinants of Foreign Versus Domestic Real Estate Investment: Property Level Evidence from Listed Real Estate Investment Firms," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 54(1), pages 17-57, January.
    20. Tahoun, Ahmed, 2014. "The role of stock ownership by US members of Congress on the market for political favors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(1), pages 86-110.
    21. Yu Liang & Weiqiang Zhang, 2016. "Do Investors Buy Lotteries in China’s Stock Market?," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(5), pages 1-5.
    22. Bauer, Rob & Smeets, Paul, 2015. "Social identification and investment decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 121-134.
    23. Green, T. Clifton & Jame, Russell, 2013. "Company name fluency, investor recognition, and firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 813-834.
    24. Morse, Adair & Shive, Sophie, 2011. "Patriotism in your portfolio," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 411-440, May.

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