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Entry, Exit, Market Makers, and the Bid-Ask Spread

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  • Wahal, Sunil

Abstract

The probability of entry and exit of dealers on the NASDAQ National Market (NNM) is significantly affected by trading intensity, volatility and the quoted bid-ask spread. Entry and exit of market makers is a pervasive phenomenon. Large-scale entry (exit) is associated with substantial declines (increases) in quoted end-of-day inside spreads, even after controlling for the effects of changes in volume and volatility. The spread changes are larger in magnitude for issues with few market makers; however, even for issues with a large number of market makers, substantial changes in quoted spreads take place. The results are consistent with the competitive model of dealer pricing. Article published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Financial Studies in its journal, The Review of Financial Studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Wahal, Sunil, 1997. "Entry, Exit, Market Makers, and the Bid-Ask Spread," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 871-901.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:10:y:1997:i:3:p:871-901
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Joe Chen, 2005. "The Market Structure of Nasdaq Dealer Markets and Quoting Conventions," CARF F-Series CARF-F-040, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    2. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2009. "Liquidity in Asset Markets With Search Frictions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(2), pages 403-426, March.
    3. Kedia, Simi & Zhou, Xing, 2011. "Local market makers, liquidity and market quality," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 540-567, November.
    4. Anand, Amber & Gatchev, Vladimir A. & Madureira, Leonardo & Pirinsky, Christo A. & Underwood, Shane, 2011. "Geographic proximity and price discovery: Evidence from NASDAQ," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 193-226, May.
    5. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2006. "Search in asset markets," Staff Report 375, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    6. Qiu, Jiaping & Yu, Fan, 2012. "Endogenous liquidity in credit derivatives," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 611-631.
    7. Madureira, Leonardo & Underwood, Shane, 2008. "Information, sell-side research, and market making," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 105-126, November.
    8. Joe Chen, 2005. "The Market Structure of Nasdaq Dealer Markets and Quoting Conventions," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-357, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    9. D'Hulst, R. & Rodgers, G.J., 2001. "Bid distributions of competing agents in simple models of auctions," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 294(3), pages 447-464.
    10. Naomi Boyd, 2015. "Market making and risk management in options markets," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 1-27, April.
    11. Biais, Bruno & Glosten, Larry & Spatt, Chester, 2005. "Market microstructure: A survey of microfoundations, empirical results, and policy implications," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 217-264, May.
    12. William B. English, 2002. "Financial consolidation and monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue May, pages 271-284.
    13. Marcin Wojtowicz, 2014. "The Determinants of CDS Bid-ask Spreads," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-138/IV/ DSF82, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Youngsoo Kim & Vikas Mehrotra, 2007. "Competition and Market Structure of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 7(3-4), pages 143-160.
    15. Allen, Linda & Gottesman, Aron A. & Peng, Lin, 2012. "The impact of joint participation on liquidity in equity and syndicated bank loan markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 50-78.
    16. Xing, Xiaochuan & Xue, Yi, 2017. "Trading mechanisms and market quality: Limit-order books versus dealership markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 35-44.
    17. Kim, Yong H. & Yang, J. Jimmy, 2008. "The effect of price limits on intraday volatility and information asymmetry," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 522-538, November.
    18. Gupta, Anurag & Singh, Ajai K. & Zebedee, Allan A., 2008. "Liquidity in the pricing of syndicated loans," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 339-376, November.
    19. Ricardo Ribeiro, 2008. "Market Dominance and Barriers to Competition in Financial Trading Venues," Working Papers 08-35, NET Institute, revised Oct 2008.
    20. Patrick De Fontnouvelle & Raymond P. H. Fishe & Jeffrey H. Harris, 2003. "The Behavior of Bid-Ask Spreads and Volume in Options Markets during the Competition for Listings in 1999," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2437-2464, December.
    21. Albert J. Menkveld & Asani Sarkar & Michel Van der Wel, 2007. "Macro news, risk-free rates, and the intermediary: customer orders for thirty-year Treasury futures," Staff Reports 307, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    22. Lipson, Marc L. & Mortal, Sandra, 2007. "Liquidity and firm characteristics: Evidence from mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 342-361, November.

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