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Multiple Expectational Equilibria Under Monopolistic Competition


  • Nobuhiro Kiyotaki


This paper shows that a monopolistically competitive economy with real investment can have multiple rational expectations equilibria: one is associated with entrepreneurs' optimistic expectations about future demand; another with entrepreneurs' pessimism. It also shows that an optimistic expectational equilibrium Pareto dominates a pessimistic equilibrium. An investment subsidy can be beneficial both by reducing the original underinvestment distortion and by changing firms' expectations from pessimistic to optimistic. The most important assumption is increasing returns to scale, and monopolistic competition makes increasing returns consistent with each producer's optimization.

Suggested Citation

  • Nobuhiro Kiyotaki, 1988. "Multiple Expectational Equilibria Under Monopolistic Competition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(4), pages 695-713.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:qjecon:v:103:y:1988:i:4:p:695-713.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Beavis, Brian & Walker, Martin, 1983. "Achieving environmental standards with stochastic discharges," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 103-111, June.
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