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Pension Challenges and Pension Reforms in Oecd Countries

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  • Peter Whiteford
  • Edward Whitehouse

Abstract

The 30 OECD member countries have very diverse pension systems. Current old-age public pension spending varies between less than 1 and more than 10 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). Public spending on pensions per person aged 65 or over varies from less than 15 to more than 40 per cent of economy-wide GDP per head. For workers entering the labour market today, the target pension from all mandatory sources for an average earner varies between 30 and 100 per cent of individual earnings. Recent pension reforms have a number of common themes. First, pension eligibility conditions have been tightened. Second, the indexation of pensions in payment has become less generous. Third, some pension schemes link benefit levels to changes in life expectancy. Finally, a number of countries have introduced defined-contribution pensions: privately managed schemes where the pension benefit depends on contributions and investment returns. Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Whiteford & Edward Whitehouse, 2006. "Pension Challenges and Pension Reforms in Oecd Countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 78-94, Spring.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:oxford:v:22:y:2006:i:1:p:78-94
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    Cited by:

    1. Javier Alonso Meseguer & J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz, 2007. "Reforma de las pensiones: la experiencia internacional," Working Papers 2007-18, FEDEA.
    2. Barr, Nicholas, 2006. "Pensions: overview of the issues," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2631, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Heather C. Vough & Christine D. Bataille & Sung Chul Noh & Mary Dean Lee, 2015. "Going Off Script: How Managers Make Sense of the Ending of Their Careers," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(3), pages 414-440, May.
    4. Buyse, Tim & Heylen, Freddy & Van De Kerckhove, Renaat, 2017. "Pension reform in an OLG model with heterogeneous abilities," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(02), pages 144-172, April.
    5. García-Pérez, J. Ignacio & Jiménez-Martín, Sergi & Sánchez-Martín, Alfonso R., 2013. "Retirement incentives, individual heterogeneity and labor transitions of employed and unemployed workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 106-120.
    6. Zou, Tieding, 2013. "公平与效率的两难抉择——关于养老改革影响因素的一个文献综述
      [The Dilemma Between Efficiency and Equity——A Literature Review for the Affecting Factors of Pension Reforming]
      ," MPRA Paper 49578, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Aug 2013.
    7. Tim Buyse & Freddy Heylen & Renaat Van de Kerckhove, 2013. "Pension reform, employment by age, and long-run growth," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 769-809, April.
    8. T. Buyse & F. Heylen, 2012. "Leaving the empirical (battle)ground: Output and welfare effects of fiscal consolidation in general equilibrium," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 12/826, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    9. Hershey, D.A. & van Dalen, Harry & Conen, Wieteke & Henkens, Kene, 2017. "Are “voluntary” self-employed better prepared for retirement than “forced” self-employed?," Other publications TiSEM 039ee146-e32b-444a-a5c6-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Tim Buyse, 2014. "Pensions and fertility: a simple proposal for reform," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 14/888, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    11. Roel Beetsma & Heikki Oksanen, 2008. "Pensions under Ageing Populations and the EU Stability and Growth Pact ," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 54(4), pages 563-592, December.
    12. Roel Beetsma & Heikki Oksanen, 2007. "Pension Systems, Ageing and the Stability and Growth Pact," CESifo Working Paper Series 2141, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. Sánchez Martín, Alfonso R., 2010. "Endogenous retirement and public pension system reform in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 336-349, January.
    14. Beltrametti, Luca & Della Valle, Matteo, 2012. "The Implicit Pension Debt: Its Meaning and an International Comparison - Il debito pensionistico: significato e confronti internazionali," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 65(1), pages 15-38.
    15. Tim BUYSE & Freddy HEYLEN & Renaat VAN DE KERCKHOVE, 2011. "Pension reform, employment by age and long-run growth," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2011025, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    16. Queisser, Monika & Whitehouse, Edward, 2005. "Pensions at a glance: public policies across OECD countries," MPRA Paper 10907, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Heikki Oksanen, 2009. "Setting targets for government budgets in the pursuit of intergenerational equity," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 358, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    18. Martin Hering, 2009. "A New Bismarckian Regime? Path Dependence and Possible Regime Shifts in Korea’s Evolving Pension System," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 262, McMaster University.
    19. Fernandez, Juan J., 2010. "Economic crises, high public pension spending and blame-avoidance strategies: Pension policy retrenchments in 14 social-insurance countries, 1981 - 2005," MPIfG Discussion Paper 10/9, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    20. Kemmerling, Achim & Neugart, Michael, 2009. "Financial market lobbies and pension reform," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 163-173, June.
    21. Obinger, Herbert & Starke, Peter, 2014. "Welfare state transformation: Convergence and the rise of the supply side model," TranState Working Papers 180, University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State.
    22. Martin, John P. & Whitehouse, Edward, 2008. "Reforming Retirement-Income Systems: Lessons from the Recent Experiences of OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3521, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    23. Figari, Francesco & Matsaganis, Manos & Sutherland, Holly, 2011. "The financial well-being of older people in Europe and the redistributive effects of minimum pension schemes," EUROMOD Working Papers EM7/11, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    24. Dennis Fredriksen & Nils Martin Stølen, 2011. "Norwegian pension reform Defined benefit versus defined contribution," Discussion Papers 669, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    25. Callan, Tim & Keane, Claire & Walsh, John R., 2009. "Pension Policy: New Evidence on Key Issues," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number RS14.

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