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Royalty Rates and Upfront Fees in Share Contracts: Evidence from Franchising

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  • James A. Brickley

Abstract

This article provides evidence on the determinants of royalties and upfront fees in share contracts by examining how state franchise termination laws affect franchise contracts. The results are consistent with the joint hypothesis that the two-sided moral hazard model explains the terms in franchise contracts and that termination laws increase the relative importance of franchisor effort (due to the extra effort that is required to control system quality). I find that franchise companies that are headquartered in termination-law states charge significantly higher royalty rates than companies headquartered in other states (around 1% higher). Correspondingly, the initial franchise fees are lower for companies headquartered in termination states. Overall, franchisees appear to pay a higher price for franchises in states with protection laws. Consistent with a basic tenet of law and economics, price adjustments appear to offset at least some of the transfers that would otherwise be implied by the laws. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

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  • James A. Brickley, 2002. "Royalty Rates and Upfront Fees in Share Contracts: Evidence from Franchising," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 511-535, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jleorg:v:18:y:2002:i:2:p:511-535
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    Cited by:

    1. Maria Isabella Leone & Raffaele Oriani & Toke Reichstein, 2015. "How much are flexibility and uncertainty worth in patent licensing?," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 42(4), pages 371-394, December.
    2. Cain, Matthew D. & Denis, David J. & Denis, Diane K., 2011. "Earnouts: A study of financial contracting in acquisition agreements," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1-2), pages 151-170, February.
    3. Cintya Lanchimba, 2013. "Optimal Monetary Provisions in Plural Form Franchise Systems ; A Theoretical Model of Incentives with Two Risk-Averse Agents," Working Papers 1321, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    4. Axel Rodríguez & Vicente Caballer & Natividad Guadalajara, 2011. "Assessing the intangibles transferred in franchise businesses," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, vol. 5(1), pages 29-46, March.
    5. Steiner, Bodo E., 2009. "The Extent and Nature of Contracting in the Wine Supply-Chain When Moral Hazard is Present," Staff Paper Series 154127, University of Alberta, Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology.
    6. Gonzalez-Diaz, Manuel & Solis-Rodriguez, Vanesa, 2012. "Why do entrepreneurs use franchising as a financial tool? An agency explanation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 325-341.
    7. Cintya Lanchimba, 2013. "Optimal Monetary Provisions in Plural Form Franchise Systems; A Theoretical Model of Incentives with Two Risk-Averse Agents," Working Papers halshs-00830899, HAL.
    8. Muriel Fadairo & Cintya Lanchimba & Miguel Yangari, 2016. "Optimal Monetary Provisions and Risk Aversion in Plural Form Franchise Networks A Model of Incentives with Heterogeneous Agents," Working Papers halshs-01251344, HAL.
    9. Muriel Fadairo & Cintya Lanchimba Lopez, 2012. "Performance in distribution systems : What is the influence of the upstream firm’s organizational choices ?," Working Papers 1224, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    10. Dnes, Antony & Garoupa, Nuno, 2005. "Externality and organizational choice in franchising," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 139-149.
    11. Dawson Peter, 2013. "Royalty Rate Determination," Journal of Business Valuation and Economic Loss Analysis, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-29, October.
    12. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9885-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Muriel Fadairo & Cyntia Lanchimba & Miguel Yangari, 2016. "Optimal Monetary Provisions and Risk Aversion in Plural Form Franchise Network. A Model of Incentives with Heterogeneous Agents," Working Papers 1602, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    14. Stéphan Marette & Emmanuel Raynaud, 2003. "Applications du droit de la concurrence au secteur agroalimentaire," Économie rurale, Programme National Persée, vol. 277(1), pages 9-22.
    15. Muriel Fadairo & Cintya Lanchimba, 2012. "Performance in distribution systems : What is the influence of the upstream firm's organizational choices ?," Working Papers halshs-00727382, HAL.
    16. Josef Windsperger, 2013. "The governance of franchising networks," Chapters,in: Handbook of Economic Organization, chapter 27 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Cain, Matthew D. & Denis, David J. & Denis, Diane K., 2011. "Earnouts: A study of financial contracting in acquisition agreements," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 151-170.
    18. Magali Chaudey & Muriel Fadairo, 2009. "Double-Sided Externalities and Vertical Contracting : Evidence from European Franchising Data," Working Papers hal-00376243, HAL.
    19. Olmos, Marta Fernández & Grazia, Cristina & Perito, Maria Angela, 2011. "Quality and Double Sided Moral Hazard in Share Contracts," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 12(1), January.
    20. Victor Aguirregabiria & Margaret Slade, 2017. "Empirical Models of Firms and Industries," Working Papers tecipa-580, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    21. Masayoshi Maruyama & Yu Yamashita, 2012. "Franchise Fees and Royalties: Theory and Empirical Results," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 40(3), pages 167-189, May.
    22. Ivan Kotliarov, 2011. "Royalty Rate Structure in Case of Franchising," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 12(1), pages 139-156, May.
    23. Christensen, Peter O. & Feltham, Gerald A. & Sabac, Florin, 2005. "A contracting perspective on earnings quality," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 265-294, June.

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