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The Accuracy of Density Forecasts from Foreign Exchange Options


  • Peter Christoffersen
  • Stefano Mazzotta


Financial decision makers often consider the information in currency option valuations when making assessments about future exchange rates. The purpose of this article is to systematically assess the quality of option-based volatility and density forecasts. We use a unique dataset consisting of more than 10 years of daily data on over-the-counter (OTC) currency option prices. We find that the OTC implied volatilities provide largely unbiased and fairly accurate forecasts of one-month- and three-month-ahead realized volatility. Furthermore, we find that the one-month option implied density forecasts are well calibrated for the center of the distribution, but we find evidence of misspecification in the tail density forecasts. Copyright 2005, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Christoffersen & Stefano Mazzotta, 2005. "The Accuracy of Density Forecasts from Foreign Exchange Options," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 3(4), pages 578-605.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jfinec:v:3:y:2005:i:4:p:578-605

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Harvey, Campbell R. & Siddique, Akhtar, 1999. "Autoregressive Conditional Skewness," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(04), pages 465-487, December.
    9. Bollerslev, Tim, 1987. "A Conditionally Heteroskedastic Time Series Model for Speculative Prices and Rates of Return," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 542-547, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Vähämaa, Sami & Krylova, Elizaveta & Nikkinen, Jussi, 2005. "Cross-dynamics of volatility term structures implied by foreign exchange options," Working Paper Series 530, European Central Bank.
    2. Chalamandaris, Georgios & Tsekrekos, Andrianos E., 2010. "Predictable dynamics in implied volatility surfaces from OTC currency options," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1175-1188, June.
    3. Andrea Carriero & Todd E. Clark & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2015. "Realtime nowcasting with a Bayesian mixed frequency model with stochastic volatility," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 178(4), pages 837-862, October.
    4. Ammann, Manuel & Buesser, Ralf, 2013. "Variance Risk Premiums in Foreign Exchange Markets," Working Papers on Finance 1304, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    5. Ewa Ratuszny, 2015. "Risk Modeling of Commodities using CAViaR Models, the Encompassing Method and the Combined Forecasts," Dynamic Econometric Models, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 15, pages 129-156.
    6. Wagner Piazza Gaglianone & Jaqueline Terra Moura Marins, 2014. "Risk Assessment of the Brazilian FX Rate," Working Papers Series 344, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    7. José Renato Haas Ornelas, 2014. "Assessing the Forecast Ability of Risk-Neutral Densities and Real-World Densities from Emerging Markets Currencies," Working Papers Series 370, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    8. José Renato Haas Ornelas, 2017. "Expected Currency Returns and Volatility Risk Premia," Working Papers Series 454, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    9. Doojin Ryu, 2012. "Implied Volatility Index of KOSPI200: Information Contents and Properties," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(0), pages 24-39, July.
    10. Christoffersen, Peter & Jacobs, Kris & Chang, Bo Young, 2013. "Forecasting with Option-Implied Information," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
    11. Funke, Michael & Loermann, Julius & Tsang, Andrew, 2017. "The information content in the offshore Renminbi foreign-exchange option market : Analytics and implied USD/CNH densities," BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2017, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    12. Shackleton, Mark B. & Taylor, Stephen J. & Yu, Peng, 2010. "A multi-horizon comparison of density forecasts for the S&P 500 using index returns and option prices," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2678-2693, November.
    13. Chalamandaris, Georgios & Tsekrekos, Andrianos E., 2011. "How important is the term structure in implied volatility surface modeling? Evidence from foreign exchange options," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 623-640, June.
    14. Krylova, Elizaveta & Nikkinen, Jussi & Vähämaa, Sami, 2009. "Cross-dynamics of volatility term structures implied by foreign exchange options," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(5), pages 355-375, September.
    15. Doojin Ryu, 2012. "Implied Volatility Index of KOSPI200: Information Contents and Properties," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(0), pages 24-39, July.
    16. Leonidas Tsiaras, 2010. "Dynamic Models of Exchange Rate Dependence Using Option Prices and Historical Returns," CREATES Research Papers 2010-35, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    17. Bisht Deepak & Laha, A. K., 2017. "Assessment of Density Forecast for Energy Commodities in Post-Financialization Era," IIMA Working Papers WP 2017-07-01, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    18. repec:eee:intfor:v:33:y:2017:i:4:p:848-863 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. repec:eee:intfor:v:33:y:2017:i:3:p:707-728 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:sbe:breart:v:36:y:2016:i:1:a:45406 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Kim, Jun Sik & Ryu, Doojin, 2015. "Are the KOSPI 200 implied volatilities useful in value-at-risk models?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 43-64.
    22. Nikkinen, Jussi & Vähämaa, Sami, 2009. "Central bank interventions and implied exchange rate correlations," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 862-873, December.
    23. Gaglianone, Wagner Piazza & Marins, Jaqueline Terra Moura, 2017. "Evaluation of exchange rate point and density forecasts: An application to Brazil," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 707-728.
    24. Ariful Hoque & Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti, 2012. "Modeling moneyness volatility in measuring exchange rate volatility," International Journal of Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(4), pages 365-380, September.

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