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Unit root tests of sigma income convergence across us metropolitan areas


  • Matthew P. Drennan
  • José Lobo
  • Deborah Strumsky


The standard deviation of metropolitan per capita personal income (PCPI) and metropolitan average wage per job (AWPJ) provide straightforward indicators of unconditional sigma convergence for metropolitan economies within the United States. Using data for all metropolitan areas in the continental United States for the period 1969--2001, we tested for the unconditional sigma income convergence hypothesis by applying two unit root tests to the time series of the two standard deviations. Our results indicate that the time series can be described as random walks with drift, thereby supporting the claim that income divergence among metropolitan economies is not decreasing. Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

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  • Matthew P. Drennan & José Lobo & Deborah Strumsky, 2004. "Unit root tests of sigma income convergence across us metropolitan areas," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(5), pages 583-595, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jecgeo:v:4:y:2004:i:5:p:583-595

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2013. "Unemployment Rate Hysteresis and the Great Recession: Exploring the Metropolitan Evidence," Working papers 2013-19, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    2. LAU, Chi Keung Marco, 2010. "New evidence about regional income divergence in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 293-309, June.
    3. Chi-Keung Lau, 2010. "Convergence Across the United States: Evidence from Panel ESTAR Unit Root Test," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 16(1), pages 52-64, February.
    4. Gheorghe ZAMAN & Zizi GOSCHIN, 2016. "A New Multidimensional Ranking of Shadow Economy for EU Countries," Romanian Journal of Economics, Institute of National Economy, vol. 43(2(52)), pages 14-33, december.
    5. repec:taf:pocoec:v:28:y:2016:i:3:p:314-334 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Zarembova, Andrea & Lyocsa, Stefan & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2012. "The Real Convergence of CEE Countries: A Study of Real GDP per capita," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 642-656..
    7. Burcu Ozcan, 2014. "Does Income Converge among EU Member Countries following the Post-War Period? Evidence from the PANKPSS Test," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 22-38, October.
    8. Gheorghe Zaman & Zizi Goschin, 2014. "Economic Crisis and Wage Divergence: Empirical Evidence from Romania," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2014(4), pages 493-513.

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