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A firm as a dialectical being: towards a dynamic theory of a firm

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Listed:
  • Ikujiro Nonaka
  • Ryoko Toyama

Abstract

Today, firms are facing many contradictions: efficiency versus creativity; exploitation versus exploration; speed versus time-consuming resource building. This paper argues that a firm's capability to synthesize such contradictions is the key to understanding why a firm can be more efficient at producing knowledge than market. A firm can create new knowledge and capability that go beyond the balancing point in the existing frontier with its synthesizing capability, which is embedded in its knowledge vision, its ba, its creative routines, its incentive systems and its distributed leadership. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Ikujiro Nonaka & Ryoko Toyama, 2002. "A firm as a dialectical being: towards a dynamic theory of a firm," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(5), pages 995-1009, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:indcch:v:11:y:2002:i:5:p:995-1009
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Elsner, Wolfram & Hocker, Gero & Schwardt, Henning, 2009. "Simplistic vs. Complex Organization: Markets, Hierarchies, and Networks in an 'Organizational Triangle'," MPRA Paper 14315, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Christine Cooper & Stephanie Hamel & Stacey Connaughton, 2012. "Motivations and obstacles to networking in a university business incubator," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 433-453, August.
    3. Morero, Hernan Alejandro, 2013. "Internacionalizacion y Sistema Nacional de Innovacion argentino: una perspectiva de tramas productivas. Los casos automotriz y siderurgico
      [Internationlization and argentinean National System of In
      ," MPRA Paper 44409, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Edward J. Malecki, 2010. "Everywhere? The Geography Of Knowledge," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 493-513.
    5. Kurokawa, Sam & Iwata, Satoshi & Roberts, Edward B., 2007. "Global R&D activities of Japanese MNCs in the US: A triangulation approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 3-36, February.
    6. Silvia Rita SEDITA & Luciano PILOTTI & Nicolò VALENTINI, 2008. "Strategie e pratiche ecologiche per apprendere ad apprendere in contesti complessi e innovativi. Il matching tra cultura e comunità di pratica nel caso H-Farm: tra meta-Corporation emergente ed ecolog," Departmental Working Papers 2008-33, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    7. Cunha, Miguel Pina e & Cunha, Rita Campos e, 2004. "The dynamics of managerial ideology: analyzing the cuban case," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp457, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    8. Gunawan, Janti & Rose, Elizabeth L., 2014. "Absorptive capacity development in Indonesian exporting firms: How do institutions matter?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 45-54.
    9. Nonaka, Ikujiro & Kodama, Mitsuru & Hirose, Ayano & Kohlbacher, Florian, 2014. "Dynamic fractal organizations for promoting knowledge-based transformation – A new paradigm for organizational theory," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 137-146.
    10. Raimund Bleischwitz & Michael Latsch & Kristian Snorre Andersen, 2004. "Sustainable Development and Collective Learning: Theory and a European Case Study," Bruges European Economic Policy Briefings 7, European Economic Studies Department, College of Europe.
    11. Nick Johnstone & Julien Labonne & Célinc Thevenot, 2008. "Environmental policy and economies of scope in facility-level environmental practices," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 9(3), pages 145-166, September.
    12. Bleischwitz, Raimund, 2003. "Governance of sustainable development: Towards synergies between corporate and political governance strategies," Wuppertal Papers 132, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy.
    13. Fiorenza Belussi & Luciano Pilotti & Silvia Rita Sedita, 2006. "Learning at the boundaries for industrial districts between exploitation of local resources and exploration of global knowledge flows," "Marco Fanno" Working Papers 0033, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno".

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