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Competition and Privatization Amidst Weak Institutions: Evidence from Mongolia


  • Anderson, James H
  • Lee, Young
  • Murrell, Peter


Mongolia's mass privatization program was implanted in a country that lacked the very basic institutions of capitalism. This paper examines the effects of competition and ownership on the efficiency of the newly privatized enterprises, using a representative sample of enterprises and controlling for possible selection biases. Competition has quantitatively large effects; perfectly competitive firms having nearly double the efficiency of monopolies. Enterprises with residual state ownership appear to be more efficient than other enterprises, reflecting an environment where the government was pressured to focus on efficiency and institutions gave little voice to outsider owners. Copyright 2000 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Anderson, James H & Lee, Young & Murrell, Peter, 2000. "Competition and Privatization Amidst Weak Institutions: Evidence from Mongolia," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(4), pages 527-549, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ecinqu:v:38:y:2000:i:4:p:527-49

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pindyck, Robert S, 1991. "Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Investment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 1110-1148, September.
    2. Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 5474, June.
    3. Andrew Caplin & John Leahy, 1993. "Sectoral Shocks, Learning, and Aggregate Fluctuations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 777-794.
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    Cited by:

    1. J. David Brown & John S. Earle & Almos Telegdy, 2004. "Does Privatization Raise Productivity? Evidence from Comprehensive Panel Data on Manufacturing Firms in Hungary, Romania, Russia and Ukraine," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0425, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    2. Asaftei, Gabriel & Parmeter, Christopher F., 2010. "Market power, EU integration and privatization: The case of Romania," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 340-356, September.
    3. John Marangos, 2002. "A post Keynesian critique of privatization policies in transition economies," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 573-589.
    4. Wu, Hsueh-Liang, 2011. "Can minority state ownership influence firm value? Universal and contingency views of its governance effects," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(8), pages 839-845, August.
    5. Alexander Pivovarsky, 2001. "How Does Privatization Work? Ownership Concentration and Enterprise Performance in Ukraine," IMF Working Papers 01/42, International Monetary Fund.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3860 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Jan Hagemejer & Joanna Tyrowicz & Jan Svejnar, 2014. "Measuring the Causal Effect of Privatization on Firm Performance," Working Papers 2014-14, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    8. Maw, James, 2002. "Partial privatization in transition economies," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 271-282, September.
    9. Debande, Olivier & Friebel, Guido, 2004. "A positive theory of give-away privatization," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1309-1325, November.
    10. Earle, John S. & Telegdy, Almos, 2002. "Privatization Methods and Productivity Effects in Romanian Industrial Enterprises," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 657-682, December.
    11. Sangeetha Gunasekar & Jayati Sarkar, 2014. "Does autonomy matter in state owned enterprises? Evidence from performance contracts in India," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2014-034, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    12. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon, 2002. "Privatization benefits in Eastern Europe," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 307-324, March.
    13. Peter F. Orazem & Milan Vodopivec, 2009. "Do Market Pressures Induce Economic Efficiency? The Case of Slovenian Manufacturing, 1994–2001," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 553-576, October.
    14. David Audretsch & Xiaodan Guo & Adrian Hepfer & Hugo Menendez & Xingzhi Xiao, 2016. "Ownership, productivity and firm survival in China," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(1), pages 67-83, March.
    15. Zorica Kalezić, 2015. "Ownership Concentration and Firm Performance in Transition Economies: Evidence from Montenegro," Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice, Central bank of Montenegro, vol. 4(3), pages 5-64.
    16. Li, Hongbin, 2003. "Government's budget constraint, competition, and privatization: evidence from China's rural industry," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 486-502, September.
    17. Okten, Cagla & Arin, K. Peren, 2006. "The Effects of Privatization on Efficiency: How Does Privatization Work?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1537-1556, September.
    18. Carney, Richard W. & Liu, Wai-Man (Raymond) & Ngo, Phong T. H., 2012. "Responding to Financial Crisis: The Rise of State Ownership and Implications for Firm Performance," MPRA Paper 43600, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Kevin C Cheng, 2003. "Growth and Recovery in Mongolia During Transition," IMF Working Papers 03/217, International Monetary Fund.

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