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Use, Esteem, and Profit in Voluntary Provision: Toll Roads in California, 1850-1902


  • Klein, Daniel B
  • Yin, Chi


Early Californians took stock in toll roads for a variety of reasons: use of the road, esteem of fellows, and profits from stock. Whatever the motivation, in operation all toll road companies felt the profit motive. This paper presents a historical survey of voluntary organizations taking the stock-corporation form. These cases demonstrate how various motivations and incentives intermingled and supported one another in the days before the corporation was legally bifurcated into either 'for-profit' or 'not-for-profit' enterprise. Copyright 1996 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Klein, Daniel B & Yin, Chi, 1996. "Use, Esteem, and Profit in Voluntary Provision: Toll Roads in California, 1850-1902," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(4), pages 678-692, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ecinqu:v:34:y:1996:i:4:p:678-92

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Epstein, L. & Denny, M., 1980. "Endogenous capital utilization in a short-run production model : Theory and an empiral application," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 189-207, February.
    2. Bernstein, Jeffrey I. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq, 1990. "Product Demand, Cost Of Production, Spillovers And The Social Rate Or Return To R&D," Working Papers 90-53, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    3. Mohnen, Pierre A. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq & Prucha, Ingmar R., 1986. "R&D, production structure and rates of return in the U.S., Japanese and German manufacturing sectors: A non-separable dynamic factor demand model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 749-771, August.
    4. Jeffrey I. Bernstein & M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1988. "Corporate Taxes and Incentives and the Structure of Production: A Selected Survey," NBER Working Papers 2579, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. W. Erwin Diewert, 1980. "Aggregation Problems in the Measurement of Capital," NBER Chapters,in: The Measurement of Capital, pages 433-538 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Pakes, Ariel & Schankerman, Mark A., 1978. "The Rate of Obsolescence of Knowledge, Research Gestation Labs, and the Private Rate of Return to Research Resources," Working Papers 78-13, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    7. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Returns to Research and Development Expenditures in the Private Sector," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 49-81 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Are Nonconvexities Important for Understanding Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 97-103, May.
    9. Morrison, C. J. & Berndt, E. R., 1981. "Short-run labor productivity in a dynamic model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 339-365, August.
    10. Bernstein, Jeffrey I & Nadiri, M Ishaq, 1988. "Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates of Return, and Production in High-Tech Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 429-434, May.
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