IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Trivariate Model of Participation, Fertility and Wages: The Italian Case


  • Di Tommaso, Maria Laura


Italy has unusually low fertility by OECD standards, accompanied by unusually low female participation in paid work. This paper addresses the issue of the empirical relationship between fertility, female participation in the labour market and wages with these Italian 'peculiarities' as a backcloth. A trivariate model of participation, fertility and wages has been constructed and estimated using three pooled cross-sections of Italian micro data, allowing for the identification of cohort effects. This model follows a 'purist' approach: the participation and fertility decisions, as well as the wage equation, are modelled as completely joint. The cohort effects turn out to be significant: the point estimates do not appear to confirm actual trends, which are negative for fertility and positive for participation. The female wage is the most important variable influencing the propensity to have children and the propensity to participate in the labour market, casting doubt on suggestions that observed trends are the products of shifts in women's 'tastes'. Copyright 1999 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Di Tommaso, Maria Laura, 1999. "A Trivariate Model of Participation, Fertility and Wages: The Italian Case," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 623-640, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:cambje:v:23:y:1999:i:5:p:623-40

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christopher Gerry & Carmen A. Li, 2004. "Revisiting Consumption Smoothing and the 1998 Russian Crisis," UCL SSEES Economics and Business working paper series 43, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES).
    2. Mickiewicz, Tomasz & Gerry, Christopher J. & Bishop, Kate, 2005. "Privatisation, corporate control and employment growth: Evidence from a panel of large Polish firms, 1996-2002," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 98-119, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua & Chiara Pronzato, 2004. "Employment and Fertility Decisions in Italy, France and the U.K," CHILD Working Papers wp08_04, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    2. Massimiliano Bratti, 2003. "Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, August.
    3. Mayssun El-Attar, 2013. "Trust, child care technology choice and female labor force participation," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 507-544, December.
    4. Lamia E. Kandil, 2015. "Disentangling qualitative and quantitative central bank influence," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2015-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    5. De Laat, Joost & Sevilla-Sanz, Almudena, 2006. "Working women, men's home time and lowest-low fertility," ISER Working Paper Series 2006-23, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    6. Del Boca, Daniela & Locatelli, Marilena, 2006. "The Determinants of Motherhood and Work Status: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2414, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Eliane El Badaoui & Eleonora Matteazzi, 2014. "To be a Mother, or not to be? Career and Wage Ladder in Italy and the UK," EconomiX Working Papers 2014-30, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    8. El-Attar, Mayssun, 2007. "Trust, Child Care Technology Choice and Female Labor Force Participation," IZA Discussion Papers 3135, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. John Sender, 2000. "Struggles To Escape Poverty In South Africa: Results From A Purposive Rural Survey," Working Papers 107, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
    10. Anna Sibilla Francesca DE PAOLI, 2010. "The effect of schooling on fertility, labor market participation and children’s outcomes, evidence from Ecuador," Departmental Working Papers 2010-30, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    11. Magdalena M. Muszynska, 2004. "Employment after childbearing: a comparative study of Italy and Norway," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2004-030, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    12. Thomas A. DiPrete & S. Philip Morgan & Henriette Engelhardt & Hana Pacalova, 2003. "Do Cross-National Differences in the Costs of Children Generate Cross-National Differences in Fertility Rates?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 355, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    13. Del Boca, Daniela & Pasqua, Silvia & Pronzato, Chiara D., 2004. "Why Are Fertility and Women's Employment Rates So Low in Italy? Lessons from France and the U.K," IZA Discussion Papers 1274, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Nicodemo, Catia & Waldmann, Robert, 2009. "Child-Care and Participation in the Labor Market for Married Women in Mediterranean Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3983, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Piazzalunga, Daniela & Di Tommaso, Maria Laura, 2015. "The increase of gender wage gap in Italy during the 2008-2012 economic crisis," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201532, University of Turin.
    16. Di Tommaso, M.L. & Weeks, M., 2000. "Decision Structures and Discrete Choices: An Application to Labour Market Participation and Fertility," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0009, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    17. Lamia Kandil, 2015. "Glass ceiling and belief flipping : theory and evidence from Egypt," Sciences Po publications 2015-02, Sciences Po.
    18. Yukawa, Shiho, 2012. "教養娯楽価格が出産に与える影響
      [The Effect of Recreational Goods Price on Fertility]
      ," MPRA Paper 35808, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:cambje:v:23:y:1999:i:5:p:623-40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.