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Environmental Emissions and Production Economics: Implications of the Materials Balance

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  • Udo Ebert
  • Heinz Welsch

Abstract

In modeling emissions, the literature has usually specified an explicit emission function, or treated emissions as a production input. We examine the validity of these approaches, taking into account the materials balance principle. We show that a technology can equivalently be described by (i) a production function with material and nonmaterial inputs and bounded marginal product of the material input, (ii) a well-behaved production function with emissions as an input, and (iii) a well-behaved emission function, if the materials balance is accounted for as an additional condition. We offer a forma derivation of common, but not rigorously established modeling approaches. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Udo Ebert & Heinz Welsch, 2007. "Environmental Emissions and Production Economics: Implications of the Materials Balance," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-293.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:89:y:2007:i:2:p:287-293
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Khanna, Neha, 2013. "Output, emissions, and technology: Some thoughts," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(2), pages 284-286.
    3. Forsund, Finn R., 2009. "Good Modelling of Bad Outputs: Pollution and Multiple-Output Production," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 3(1), pages 1-38, August.
    4. Ebert, Udo & Welsch, Heinz, 2011. "Optimal environmental taxes and standards: Implications of the materials balance," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(12), pages 2454-2460.
    5. Figge, Frank & Hahn, Tobias & Barkemeyer, Ralf, 2014. "The If, How and Where of assessing sustainable resource use," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 274-283.
    6. Van Meensel, Jef & Lauwers, Ludwig H. & Van Huylenbroeck, Guido & Van Passel, Steven, 2009. "Exploring production-theoretical insights for analyzing trade-offs between economic performance and environmental pressure at firm level," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51725, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Jeanneaux, Philippe & Latruffe, Laure, 2016. "Modelling pollution-generating technologies in performance benchmarking: Recent developments, limits and future prospects in the nonparametric frameworkAuthor-Name: Dakpo, K. Hervé," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 250(2), pages 347-359.
    8. Hampf, Benjamin & Rødseth, Kenneth Løvold, 2015. "Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants: An efficiency analysis perspective," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 140-153.
    9. Kenneth Rødseth & Eirik Romstad, 2014. "Environmental Regulations, Producer Responses, and Secondary Benefits: Carbon Dioxide Reductions Under the Acid Rain Program," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 59(1), pages 111-135, September.
    10. Mahlberg, Bernhard & Luptacik, Mikulas & Sahoo, Biresh K., 2011. "Examining the drivers of total factor productivity change with an illustrative example of 14 EU countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 60-69.
    11. Kortelainen, Mika, 2008. "Estimation of semiparametric stochastic frontiers under shape constraints with application to pollution generating technologies," MPRA Paper 9257, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Kuosmanen, Natalia & Kuosmanen, Timo, 2013. "Modeling Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Surpluses in Agriculture: A Dynamic Approach to Material Balance Accounting," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 159-167.
    13. Lauwers, Ludwig, 2009. "Justifying the incorporation of the materials balance principle into frontier-based eco-efficiency models," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(6), pages 1605-1614, April.
    14. Mahlberg, Bernhard & Luptacik, Mikulas, 2014. "Eco-efficiency and eco-productivity change over time in a multisectoral economic system," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(3), pages 885-897.
    15. Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes & Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J., 2017. "Assessing environmental performance in the European Union: Eco-innovation versus catching-up," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 240-252.
    16. Van Meensel, Jef & Lauwers, Ludwig & Van Huylenbroeck, Guido & Van Passel, Steven, 2010. "Comparing frontier methods for economic-environmental trade-off analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(2), pages 1027-1040, December.
    17. Kenneth Løvold Rødseth, 2017. "Environmental regulations and allocative efficiency: application to coal-to-gas substitution in the U.S. electricity sector," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 129-142, April.

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