Projecting Industrial Areas Ecologically Equipped to Sustain Competitiveness and Local Development
As a phenomenon, globalisation is not historically new. Nowadays, it has at least two aspects that make it peculiar, one related to a huge economic growth over social issues and, the other, to the massive technical evolution occurred in the XXI century, events both never seen before in human history. The acceleration of hi-tech evolution permitted in few decades the almost complete economic integration among a tripolar system made by United States, European Union and Japan. The Italian model of development shows characteristics not fully understandable with classical economic interpretation tools. The strong ties between SMEs areas and sociocultural environment have leaded the rising of many industrial districts, an element of distinction of its system of production. This paper analyses the local productive systems and the emerging issue related to the sustainable development, meant as an economic development for future generations preserving the natural environment resources. Local governance and territorial promotion are the two key factors to preserve the territorial integrity. With this focus in mind, recently, many experiences and experiments have been undergoing,to develop as much as possible the concepts of sustainable development and quality in economical local development. A very useful tool is the Integrated product policy (IPP), made bydifferent actions for the single enterprise and productive chain in different times of the product life cycle, from projecting, to production, distribution, consumption and disposal. The innovationconsists in the transition from linear production process to a circular closed production one, a switch from industrial ecology toindustrial symbiosis. In line with it, ecoindustrial parks are raised,with the form of APEA (industrial areas ecologically equipped) with system specifically engendered to protect health and safety, environment protection, shared infrastructures and simplificationof process. Projecting APEAs consists in a rethinking of the classical terms of how the relationship between enterprises and environment is to be considered. The recent experience of PonteRizzoli's APEA near Bologna in Emilia Romagna is examined. Sustainable development and territory evaluation are the key factor to analyze to promote the unique and precious richness madeby territories.
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