Recent Changes on Social Needs and the New Demand for Welfare Services. The Issue of Subsidiarity
Nowdays, one of the most relevant challenges for the Western societies is to find and develop a wider meaning of social welfare after, and during a period in which, the socioeconomic scenario and the general idea of the Welfare State have deeply changed. Focusing on the Italian case, the paper aims to analyse the reasons that recently led to the domestic «social state crisis» and the ways in which it could be possible to find new engines rising the range of social rights, constitutionally and internationally codified, through offering different joint connections in the society. The paper focuses on developing in a deeper way the issue of subsidiarity. In particular, its ability to maintain an appropriate protection level in the society, to extend networks that include new individuals and services and to satisfy new personal needs. In other words, the paper analyses the ability to create a real alternative, using an outside option, to the «old» welfare system based on the heavy presence of the State that plays the role of guarantor of citizenship rights and offers welfare services. In this context, social enterprises could be a new, really effective, and original organization system, able to move bottom up social and human capital in the local societies and to be a useful link enhancing the public institutions' activities.
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