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Regional variation in Kurmanji: A preliminary classification of dialects

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  • Ergin Öpengin

    () (Department of General Linguistics, University of Bamberg, GermanyTitle: Dengbêjs on borderlands: Borders and the state as seen through the eyes of Kurdish singer-poets)

  • Geoffrey Haig

    () (Department of General Linguistics, University of Bamberg, Germany)

Abstract

Historical linguistic sources of Kurdish date back just a few hundred years, thus it is not possiInvestigation of the regional variation in Kurmanji, especially its varieties spoken in Turkey, has been almost entirely neglected in the existing literature on Kurdish. In addition to earlier isolated examinations of Kurmanji dialects (cf. MacKenzie, 1961; Ritter, 1971, 1976; Blau, 1975; Jastrow, 1977), native-speaker researchers have recently provided a substantial amount of dialect material across the Kurmanji-speech zone. However, a methodologically-informed evaluation of these observations into a dialect classification is yet to be undertaken. This article aims at providing an initial classification of Kurmanji-internal variation into major regional dialects, based on lexical, phonological and morphosyntactic data collected from five localities in Southeastern Turkey. Cihêrengiya zimanî ya navxweyî di kurmanciyê de: tesnîfeke seretayî ya zaravayan Di nav xebatên li ser zimanê kurdî de, heta niha, vekolîna cudatiyên devok û zaravayên kurmanciyê, bi taybetî ewên di nav sînorên Tirkiyeyê de, hema bi temamî hatiye piştguhkirin. Ji bilî çend xebatên serbixwe yên pêştir li ser zaravayên kurmancî (wek MacKenzie 1961; Ritter, 1971 û 1976; Blau, 1976; Jastrow 1977), di nav van salên dawî de vekolerên kurdîziman qewareyeke mezin a dane û materyelên ji gelek zaravayên kurmanciyê berhev kirine. Lê belê, hêj ev çavdêriyên berbelav bi rengekî metodolojîk nehatine nirxandin ku tesnîfeke zaravayan jê bi dest bikeve. Ev meqale dil dike tesnîfeke seretayî ya zaravayên serekî yên kurmanciyê pêşkêş bike li ser bingehê daneyên peyvî û fonolojîk û rêzimanî yên li pênc deverên başûr-rojhilatê Tirkiyeyê berhevkirî. جیاوازی ناوچەیی لەناو کرمانجیدا: پۆلینبەندییەکی سەرەتایی زاراوەکان لەناو ئەو لێکۆڵینەوانەی کە سەبارەت بە جیاوازی ناوچەیی لە کرمانجیدا ئەنجام دراوە، بەتایبەت ئەوانەی کە لەمەڕ جۆربەجۆری ئەو [زاراوانەی] کە لە تورکیا قسەیان پێ دەکرێ، بەتەواوی لەمەڕ هەبوونی ئەدەبیاتێکی هەبوو بە زمانی کوردی چاوپۆشی دەکرێت. سەرەڕای چەند تاقیکردنەوەیەکی تاک و تەرا سەبارەت بە شێوەزارەکانی کرمانجی کە پێشتر بەئەنجام گەیشتوون (بەراوردی بکەن لەگەڵ مەک‌کینزی، ١٩٦١؛ ڕیتێر، ١٩٧١ و ١٩٧٦؛ بلەو، ١٩٧٦؛ یاسترۆ، ١٩٧٧) لەم ساڵانەی دواییدا توێژەرانی کورد ڕادەیەکی بەرچاو لە مادەی پێویست سەبارەت بە شێوەزارەکانی کرمانجییان لە دەڤەری کرمانجی ئاخێودا دەستەبەر کردووە. هەرچەند بەمەبەستی پۆلینبەندی زاراوەکان، هەتاکوو ئێستا، هەڵسەنگاندنێکی مێتۆدیک و پڕزانیاری لەسەر ئەم تێڕامانانە ئەنجام نەدراوە. ئامانجی ئەم وتارە بریتییە لەوەی کە پۆلینبەندییەکی سەرەتایی لەو جیاوازییە ناوخۆییەی کە لە زاراوە سەرەکییەکانی ناوچە کرمانجی ئاخێوەکاندا هەیە بەدەستەوە بدات و بۆ ئەم مەبەستە توێژینەوەکە لەسەر بنەمای ئەو داتا وشەیی، دەنگناسی و پێکهاتەی ڕێزمانییانە ئەنجام دەدرێت کە لە پێنج ناوچەی باشوری ڕۆژهەڵاتی تورکیا کۆ کراونەتەوە.

Suggested Citation

  • Ergin Öpengin & Geoffrey Haig, 2014. "Regional variation in Kurmanji: A preliminary classification of dialects," Kurdish Studies, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 2(2), pages 143-176, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:mig:ksjrnl:v:2:y:2014:i:2:p:143-176
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