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The Kurds and Middle Eastern “State of Violence”: the 1980s and 2010s

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  • Hamit Bozarslan

    (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), France)

Abstract

Though a macro-level analysis this article examines the evolution of the Kurdish issue since the occupation of Iraq in 2003 and the Syrian crisis in 2011, underlining the necessity of a comparison between the current period and past situations, namely that of the 1980s. Kurdish actors participated from a rather weak position in the Middle-East wide conflicts during the 1980s; alliances with regional states that gave access to political and military resources ensured their durability, but a high price was paid for their transformation into subordinated players of a broader “state of violence”. Since 2011, the trans-border Kurdish space finds itself once again in the heart of a “system of transaction” based on violence, but Kurdish organisations face the new region-wide conflicts in a position of empowerment in Iraq, Syria and Turkey. Kurd û Rewşa Tund ya Rojhilata Navîn: 1980yan û 2010an Ev gotar, bi rêka helsengeka asta-makro, vedikole li peresîna pirsgirêka Kurdî ji dema dagirbûna Iraqê di 2003yê da û qeyrana Sûriyeyê di 2011ê da û bi taybetî beldikişîne ser pêwistiya berhevdaneka di navbera serdema niha û rewşa borî, anku rewşa salên 80yan. Di salên 80yan da hêzên Kurd pitir ji pozisyoneka qels û lawaz beşdarî dijberî û aloziyên Rojhilata Navîn bûn; hevalbendiyên li gel dewletên li herêmê rê da bikaranîna çavkaniyên siyasî û leşkerî bo misogerkirina berdewamiya hêzên Kurd; lê van dewletan, bi hewldanên giranbuha, hişt ku kurd bimînin wekî aktorên bindest di nav rewşa tund ya herêmê da. Ji 2011ê ve, tevgera kurd ya dersînor careka din xwe di navenda pergaleka tund da dibine; lê vê carê rêkxistinên kurd yên li Iraq, Sûriye û Tirkiyeyê ji pozisyoneka bihêz rûberî vê dijberiya berfireh ya heremî ne. کورد و ''باری توندوتیژی''ی ڕۆژهەڵاتی ناوەڕاست: ١٩٨٠کان و ٢٠١٠یەکان حئەگەرچی ئەم گوتارە شیکردنەوەیە لە پلەیەکی باڵادا، لە گەشەکردنی پرسی کورد ورد دەبێتەوە لە داگیرکردنی عیراقەوە ساڵی ٢٠٠٣ و لە قەیرانی سووریاوە ساڵی ٢٠١١، ئەوەیش جەخت دەکات کە پێویستە بەراورد بکرێت لەنێوان قۆناغی ئێستا و و هەلومەرجی ڕابوردوودا، واتە هەلومەرجی ١٩٨٠کان. نەخشگێڕانی کورد لە هەڵوێستێکی تا ڕادەیەک لاوازەوە بەشدارییان لە ناکۆکییە فراوانەکانی ڕۆژهەڵاتی ناوەڕاستی ١٩٨٠کاندا کرد؛ هاوپەیمانیکردن لەگەڵ دەوڵەتانی ناوچەییدا کە دەبووە هۆی دەستکەوتنی سەرچاوەی سیاسی و عەسکەری، مانەوەیانی دابین دەکرد، بەڵام دەبوو نرخێکی زۆریش بدەن بۆ ئەوەی ببنە یاریکەری لاوەکی لە ''باری توندوتیژی''یەکی بەربڵاودا. لە ساڵی ٢٠١١ بە دواوە، ڕووپێوی کوردیی ئەمدیو و ئەودیوی سنوورەکان جارێکی دیکە خۆی لە ناوجەرگەی ''سیستەمێکی بدە و بستێنە''دا دەبینێتەوە کە لەسەر توندوتیژی هەڵچنراوە، بەڵام ڕێکخراوە کوردییەکان کە ڕووبەڕووی ناکۆکییە بەربڵاوەکانی ناوچەکە دەبنەوە، لە پلەیەکی توانستدان لە عیراق، سووریا و تورکیا.

Suggested Citation

  • Hamit Bozarslan, 2014. "The Kurds and Middle Eastern “State of Violence”: the 1980s and 2010s," Kurdish Studies, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 2(1), pages 4-13, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:mig:ksjrnl:v:2:y:2014:i:1:p:4-13
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    Keywords

    Kurdish movements; state of violence; Iraq; Syria; Turkey;

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