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Macro-environmental factors affecting integration: Turks in Germany and the Netherlands


  • Gonul Tol

    () (Middle East Institute, Washington, DC, USA.)


This study examines the causal factors to explain the different integration patterns of the Turkish community in the Netherlands and Germany. The Dutch and German Turkish communities offer an excellent opportunity for comparative analysis of integration, since they share many socio-cultural characteristics but differ in their level of integration. It suggests that the Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands are more integrated into the host society than their counterparts in Germany due to the difference in "macro-environmental factors" such as the political-legal framework and economic factors in these countries. These factors can stimulate or constrain the integration of ethnic groups. While anti-ethnic legislation, unfavourable immigration policies and discrimination in the labour market discourage integration, anti-discrimination laws and easy naturalization promote integration of immigrant communities into host societies.

Suggested Citation

  • Gonul Tol, 2012. "Macro-environmental factors affecting integration: Turks in Germany and the Netherlands," Migration Letters, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 9(1), pages 25-32, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:mig:journl:v:9:y:2012:i:1:p:25-32

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