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Financial Development and Income Inequality at Different Levels of Institutional Quality


  • Siong Hook Law
  • Hui Boon Tan
  • W. N. W. Azman-Saini


We examine whether the relationship between financial development and income inequality varies with levels of institutional quality. The empirical evidence based on the threshold regression approach shows that there indeed exists an institutional quality threshold effect in the relationship between financial development and income inequality. Financial development tends to reduce income inequality only after a certain threshold level of institutional quality has been achieved. Until then, the effect of financial development on income inequality is nonexistent. This finding suggests that institutional quality affects the link between financial development and income inequality, reflecting the notion that better quality finance results in more equal income distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Siong Hook Law & Hui Boon Tan & W. N. W. Azman-Saini, 2014. "Financial Development and Income Inequality at Different Levels of Institutional Quality," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1S), pages 21-33, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:mes:emfitr:v:50:y:2014:i:1s:p:21-33

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    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Chi-Chuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Ning, Shao-Lin, 2017. "Dynamic relationship of oil price shocks and country risks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 571-581.
    2. de Haan, Jakob & Sturm, Jan-Egbert, 2017. "Finance and income inequality: A review and new evidence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 171-195.
    3. Bilin Neyapti, 2018. "Income distribution and economic crises," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 273-296, December.
    4. Thang Cong Nguyen & Tan Ngoc Vu & Duc Hong Vo & Dao Thi-Thieu Ha, 2019. "Financial Development and Income Inequality in Emerging Markets: A New Approach," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(4), pages 1-14, November.
    5. Chiu, Yi-Bin & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Financial development, income inequality, and country risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 1-18.
    6. Lee, Chi-Chuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Oil price shocks and Chinese banking performance: Do country risks matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 46-53.
    7. G. P. Manish & Colin O’Reilly, 2019. "Banking regulation, regulatory capture and inequality," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 180(1), pages 145-164, July.
    8. Matemilola, Bolaji Tunde & Bany-Ariffin, A.N. & Azman-Saini, W.N.W. & Nassir, Annuar Md, 2019. "Impact of institutional quality on the capital structure of firms in developing countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 175-209.
    9. Bittencourt, Manoel & Chang, Shinhye & Gupta, Rangan & Miller, Stephen M., 2019. "Does financial development affect income inequality in the U.S. States?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1043-1056.
    10. Richard Chisik & Bill Battaile & Harun Onder, 2014. "Services, Inequality, and the Dutch Disease," Working Papers 041, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
    11. Asamoah, Michael Effah & Adjasi, Charles K.D. & Alhassan, Abdul Latif, 2016. "Macroeconomic uncertainty, foreign direct investment and institutional quality: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 612-621.
    12. Ionuţ JIANU, 2017. "The impact of private sector credit on income inequalities in European Union (15 member states)," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(611), S), pages 61-74, Summer.
    13. Jakob de Haan & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Jakob de Haan, 2016. "Finance and Income Inequality: A Review and New Evidence," CESifo Working Paper Series 6079, CESifo Group Munich.
    14. Ghulam Rasool Madni, 2019. "Probing Institutional Quality Through Ethnic Diversity, Income Inequality and Public Spending," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 142(2), pages 581-595, April.
    15. Jianu, Ionuț, 2017. "The impact of private sector credit on income inequalities in European Union (15 member states)," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 61-74.
    16. Ahmed, Azleen Rosemy & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "What is the link between financial development and income inequality? evidence from Malaysia," MPRA Paper 79416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Sturm, Jan-Egbert & De Haan, Jakob, 2016. "Finance and income inequality revisited," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145660, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Hsieh, Joyce & Chen, Ting-Cih & Lin, Shu-Chin, 2019. "Financial structure, bank competition and income inequality," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 450-466.
    19. repec:rye:wpaper:wp041} is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Aïssata COULIBALY, 2016. "Revisiting the Relationship between Financial Development and Child Labor in Developing Countries: Do Inequality and Institutions Matter?," Working Papers 201619, CERDI.
    21. YOUNSI, Moheddine & BECHTINI, Marwa, 2018. "Economic Growth, Financial Development and Income Inequality in BRICS Countries: Evidence from Panel Granger Causality Tests," MPRA Paper 85182, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Mansor Ibrahim, 2018. "Finance And Inequality In Eight Asian Countries: Does Size Matter," Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking, Bank Indonesia, vol. 21(1), pages 1-24, July.


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