IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Is Per Capita Real GDP Stationary in Central and Eastern European Countries?


  • Chi-Wei Su
  • Hsu-Ling Chang


In this study we apply flexible Fourier stationarity unit root testing as proposed by Enders and Lee (2004, 2009) to assess the nonstationary properties of per capita real gross domestic product (GDP) for nine central and east European (CEE) countries. We find that the Fourier stationary unit root test has greater power than the linear method if the true data-generating process of per capita real GDP is in fact a stationary nonlinear process of an unknown form with structural change using low-frequency components. We investigate the stationarity of per capita real GDP from the nonlinear point of view and provide robust evidence clearly indicating that real output is well characterized by a nonlinear, mean-reverting process for three countries, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, and Romania. These results have important policy implications for CEE countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Chi-Wei Su & Hsu-Ling Chang, 2011. "Is Per Capita Real GDP Stationary in Central and Eastern European Countries?," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(3), pages 54-65, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:mes:eaeuec:v:49:y:2011:i:3:p:54-65

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Phiri, Andrew, 2018. "Robust analysis of convergence in per capita GDP in BRICS economies," MPRA Paper 86936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Omid Ranjbar & Tsangyao Chang & Chien-Chiang Lee & Zahra (Mila) Elmi, 2016. "Reopening the Convergence Debate when Sharp Breaks and Smooth Shifts Wed, 1870-2010," Iranian Economic Review (IER), Faculty of Economics,University of Tehran.Tehran,Iran, vol. 20(3), pages 356-377, Summer.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mes:eaeuec:v:49:y:2011:i:3:p:54-65. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.