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Entry into Banking Markets and the Early-Mover Advantage

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  • ALLEN N. BERGER
  • ASTRID A. DICK

Abstract

Using a sample for 1972-2002 with over 10,000 bank entries into local markets, we find a market share advantage for early entrants. In particular, the earlier a bank enters, the larger is its market share relative to other banks, controlling for firm, market, and time effects, with a market share advantage for early movers between 1 and 15 percentage points, depending on the order of entry. The strongest early-mover advantage is for banks that were in our sample in 1972 and survive into the 1990s. Moreover, early entrants appear to have such hold in the market by strategically investing in larger branch networks. Even controlling for the potential survivorship bias, we find that a bank's share decreases by 0.1 percentage points for a change in its order of entry from "n"th to ("n"+ 1)th. High growth markets show a smaller difference between late and early movers, consistent with a larger fraction of consumers yet to be locked in with a bank in these markets. Copyright 2007 The Ohio State University.

Suggested Citation

  • Allen N. Berger & Astrid A. Dick, 2007. "Entry into Banking Markets and the Early-Mover Advantage," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(4), pages 775-807, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:39:y:2007:i:4:p:775-807
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. H. Damar, 2009. "Why Do Payday Lenders Enter Local Markets? Evidence from Oregon," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 34(2), pages 173-191, March.
    2. Robert Adams & Dean Amel, 2016. "The Effects of Past Entry, Market Consolidation, and Expansion by Incumbents on the Probability of Entry in Banking," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 48(1), pages 95-118, February.
    3. Robert Feinberg, 2008. "Explaining the Credit Union Entry Decision, and Implications for Performance," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 33(1), pages 81-91, August.
    4. Kazumine Kondo & Kozo Harimaya, 2014. "Why Do Japanese Non-Local Regional Banks Enter Other Prefectures Under the Region-Based Relationship Banking Policy?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 473-485, December.
    5. Usero, Belén & Fernández, Zulima, 2009. "First come, first served: How market and non-market actions influence pioneer market share," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(11), pages 1139-1145, November.
    6. Wang, Teng, 2015. "Bank Entry Mode, Labor Market Flexibility and Economic Activity," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 25, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    7. Robert M. Adams & Dean F. Amel, 2016. "The Effects of Past Entry, Market Consolidation, and Expansion by Incumbents on the Probability of Entry in Banking," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 48(1), pages 95-118, February.
    8. Robert M. Adams & Jacob Gramlich, 2016. "Where Are All the New Banks? The Role of Regulatory Burden in New Bank Formation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 48(2), pages 181-208, March.
    9. Halkos, George E. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2013. "Estimating the degree of operating efficiency gains from a potential bank merger and acquisition: A DEA bootstrapped approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1658-1668.
    10. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
    11. Armbruster, Kathrin & Beckmann, Michael & Kuhn, Dieter, 2012. "Task Allocation and Corporate Performance : is There a First-Mover Advantage?," Working papers 2012/07, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    12. John R. Walter & Patricia E. Wescott, 2008. "Antitrust analysis in banking : goals, methods, and justifications in a changed environment," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 45-72.
    13. Andrew Cohen & Michael Mazzeo, 2010. "Investment Strategies and Market Structure: An Empirical Analysis of Bank Branching Decisions," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 1-21, August.
    14. Lorenzo Ciari & Riccardo De Bonis, 2011. "Entry decisions after deregulation: the role of incumbents' market power," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 50, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Roman, Raluca, 2015. "Did saving Wall Street really save Main Street : the real effects of TARP on local economic conditions," Research Working Paper RWP 15-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    16. Kariastanto, Bayu, 2013. "Small Share of the Islamic Banks in Indonesia, Supply-side Problems?," MPRA Paper 61248, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Nurski, Laura & Verboven, Frank, 2014. "Incumbency advantages, distribution networks and exclusivity — Evidence from the European car markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 75-79.

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