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Scottish Banking before 1845: A Model for Laissez-Faire?

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  • Cowen, Tyler
  • Kroszner, Randall

Abstract

During the "free banking" era in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland, there were a number of legal restrictions affecting the evolution of the system. Scottish banking was characterized by restrictions on small-denomination and interest-bearing notes. There were also restrictions inhibiting the development of capital markets and entry into banking. Furthermore, the Bank of England operated as a "shadow" central bank for the Scottish system. These considerations call into question the use of the Scottish banking experience as the appropriate model for laissez-faire and as evidence against the "legal restrictions theory of money" and the "new monetary economics." Copyright 1989 by Ohio State University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Cowen, Tyler & Kroszner, Randall, 1989. "Scottish Banking before 1845: A Model for Laissez-Faire?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(2), pages 221-231, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:21:y:1989:i:2:p:221-31
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    1. Anthony Evans, 2014. "In Defence of ‘Demand’ Deposits: Contractual Solutions to the Barnett and Block, and Bagus and Howden Debate," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 124(2), pages 351-364, October.
    2. Bernanke, Ben S, 1983. "Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in Propagation of the Great Depression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 257-276, June.
    3. Ignacio Briones & Hugh Rockoff, 2005. "Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Free-Banking Episodes?," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 2(2), pages 279-324, August.
    4. Lenzu, Simone & Tedeschi, Gabriele, 2012. "Systemic risk on different interbank network topologies," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(18), pages 4331-4341.
    5. David Andolfatto, 2005. "On the Coexistence of Money and Bonds," 2005 Meeting Papers 9, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    6. Catherine Karyotis, 2008. "Histoire de la compensation: de la monnaie aux titres," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 91(1), pages 77-95.
    7. William Roberds, 2016. "Review of Making Money: Coin, Currency, and the Coming of Capitalism by Christine Desan," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 54(3), pages 906-921, September.
    8. Levine, Ross, 2005. "Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934 Elsevier.
    9. Michael D. Bordo, 1989. "The Lender of Last Resort: Some Historical Insights," NBER Working Papers 3011, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Alain Ize & Miguel A. Kiguel, 2005. "Managing Systemic Liquidity Risk in Financially Dollarized Economies," IMF Working Papers 05/188, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Mathieu Bédard, 2016. "In Which Context is the Option Clause Desirable?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 139(2), pages 287-297, December.
    12. Nechita Radu, 2003. "Demand Deposits Insurance and Double Liability : The effect On Incentives," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 13(1), pages 1-44, March.
    13. Gerard Caprio, Jr., 1995. "The role of financial intermediaries in transitional economies," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 257-302, June.
    14. Randall Kroszner, 2000. "Lessons from Financial Crises: The Role of Clearinghouses," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 18(2), pages 157-171, December.
    15. Randall S. Kroszner, 1998. "Lessons from a laissez-faire payments system: the Suffolk Banking System, 1825-58 - commentary," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 117-120.
    16. Iori, Giulia & Jafarey, Saqib & Padilla, Francisco G., 2006. "Systemic risk on the interbank market," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 61(4), pages 525-542, December.
    17. Evans, Lewis T & Quigley, Neil C, 1995. "Shareholder Liability Regimes, Principal-Agent Relationships, and Banking Industry Performance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(2), pages 497-520, October.
    18. Alain Ize & Miguel Kiguel & Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2005. "Managing Systemic Liquidity Risk in Financially Dollarized Economy," Business School Working Papers managsystrisk, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
    19. repec:pai:apunup:es-31-02 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Kroszner, Randall, 1995. "Free banking : the Scottish experience as a model for emerging economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1536, The World Bank.
    21. Patrice Robitaille, 1997. "Private payments systems in historical perspective: the Banco Central system of Mexico," International Finance Discussion Papers 599, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    22. Sánchez-Ballesta, Juan Pedro & Lloréns, Mercedes Bernal, 2010. "Monitoring, reputation and accountability in issuing banks in mid-nineteenth-century Spain," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 403-419, October.
    23. Richard C.K. Burdekin & Marc D. Weidenmier, "undated". "Circulating Interest-Bearing Currency: An Arkansan Experiment, 1861-1863," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2003-04, Claremont Colleges.
    24. Richard C.K.Burdekin & Marc D.Weidenmier, 2002. "Interest-Bearing Currency and Legal Restrictions Theory:Lessons from the Southern Confederacy," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 22(2), pages 199-209, Fall.
    25. Michael D. Bordo, 1990. "The lender of last resort : alternative views and historical experience," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Jan, pages 18-29.

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