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Financing the German Mittelstand

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  • Audretsch, David B
  • Elston, Julie A

Abstract

This paper describes how the German Mittelstand, or small- and medium-sized enterprises, are financed in Germany. The role of the German Mittelstand, both in a static and in a dynamic framework, is described and contrasted with that of the same size group in other leading industrialised countries. We find that in general, the Mittelstand has played a more important role in Germany than in other industrialized nations, such as the United States or the United Kingdom. The traditional success of the German Mittelstand is partly attributable to a system of finance that is richly layered by complementary institutions designed to meet the financial needs of both large and smaller enterprises. However, we find evidence that even under the German system of finance liquidity constraints exist and are greater for smaller firms. The German system of finance moreover seems particularly deficient in the channeling of funds to new firm startups in the newer industries. Copyright 1997 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Suggested Citation

  • Audretsch, David B & Elston, Julie A, 1997. "Financing the German Mittelstand," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 97-110, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:9:y:1997:i:2:p:97-110
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    Cited by:

    1. Vivek Ghosal & Yang Ye, 2015. "Uncertainty and the employment dynamics of small and large businesses," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 529-558, March.
    2. Mueller, Elisabeth & Zimmermann, Volker, 2006. "The Importance of Equity Finance for R&D Activity: Are There Differences Between Young and OldCompanies?," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-014, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Bartz, Wiebke & Winkler, Adalbert, 2016. "Flexible or fragile? The growth performance of small and young businesses during the global financial crisis — Evidence from Germany," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 196-215.
    4. Michael Berlemann & Vera Jahn, 2016. "Regional Importance of Mittelstand Firms and Innovation Performance," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(11), pages 1819-1833, November.
    5. Metzger, Georg, 2007. "On the Role of Entrepreneurial Experience for Start-up Financing: An Empirical Investigation for Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-047, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. Goldberg , Mike & Palladini, Eric, 2008. "Chile : a strategy to promote innovative small and medium enterprises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4518, The World Bank.
    7. Oleg Badunenko, 2007. "Downsizing in German Chemical Manufacturing Industry during the 1990s: Why Small Is Beautiful?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 722, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Elisabeth Müller & Volker Zimmermann, 2009. "The importance of equity finance for R&D activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 303-318, October.
    9. Ciarán mac an Bhaird & Brian Lucey, 2010. "Determinants of capital structure in Irish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 357-375, October.
    10. Veronique Vermoesen & Marc Deloof & Eddy Laveren, 2013. "Long-term debt maturity and financing constraints of SMEs during the Global Financial Crisis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 433-448, August.
    11. Alfred Haid, 2001. "Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Corporate Governance in Europe: Einführung," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(2), pages 193-200.
    12. World Bank, 2004. "Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14352, The World Bank.
    13. Annalisa Croce & Diego D’Adda & Elisa Ughetto, 2015. "Venture capital financing and the financial distress risk of portfolio firms: How independent and bank-affiliated investors differ," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 189-206, January.
    14. Sonia Baños-Caballero & Pedro García-Teruel & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2012. "How does working capital management affect the profitability of Spanish SMEs?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 517-529, September.
    15. Domenico Sarno, 2007. "Financial structure and Southern Italy firms’ growth," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 2, May.
    16. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9833-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. F. Voulgaris & D. Asteriou & G. Agiomirgianakis, 2004. "Size and Determinants of Capital Structure in the Greek Manufacturing Sector," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 247-262.
    18. Orlin Todorov, 2005. "Certain Financial Problems the Small and Medium Enterprises Face in the Countries of the European Economic Area (EEA)," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 3, pages 103-123.
    19. Oleg Badunenko, 2010. "Downsizing in the German chemical manufacturing industry during the 1990s. Why is small beautiful?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 413-431, May.

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