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New-Firm Startups, Technology, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations

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  • Audretsch, David B
  • Acs, Zoltan J

Abstract

New-firm startup activity is examined within a framework pooling a cross-section of 117 industries over six time periods between 1976 and 1986. A model is introduced relating startup activity both to elements of the business cycle, in particular the macroeconomic growth rate, the cost of capital, and the unemployment rate, and to industry-specific characteristics, especially the technological conditions underlying the industry. The pooled cross-section regression results suggest that macroeconomic fluctuations as well as industry-specific elements contribute to startup activity. While new-firm startups respond positively to macroeconomic growth, they are promoted by a low cost of capital and high unemployment rate. A somewhat surprising result is that new-firm startups are not apparently deterred in capital intensive industries and where R&D expenditures play an important role. The empirical results suggest that new firms may be able to overcome their inherent size and experience disadvantages in such markets through exploiting university research and pursuing innovative activity. Copyright 1994 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Suggested Citation

  • Audretsch, David B & Acs, Zoltan J, 1994. "New-Firm Startups, Technology, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(6), pages 439-449, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:6:y:1994:i:6:p:439-49
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    Cited by:

    1. Hashmat Khan & Pythagoras Petratos, 2016. "Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle: Stylized Facts from U.S. Venture Capital Activity," Carleton Economic Papers 16-09, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
    2. Panu Kalmi, 2013. "Catching a wave: the formation of co-operatives in Finnish regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 295-313, June.
    3. Shaoming Cheng, 2011. "Business cycle, industrial composition, or regional advantage? A decomposition analysis of new firm formation in the United States," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(1), pages 147-167, August.
    4. Emilio Congregado & Antonio Golpe & Simon Parker, 2012. "The dynamics of entrepreneurship: hysteresis, business cycles and government policy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1239-1261, December.
    5. Klapper, Leora & Love, Inessa & Randall, Douglas, 2014. "New firm registration and the business cycle," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6775, The World Bank.
    6. Elisabete Félix & Cesaltina Pires & Mohamed Gulamhussen, 2013. "The Determinants of Venture Capital in Europe — Evidence Across Countries," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 259-279, December.
    7. C. Higson & S. Holly & P. Kattuman & S. Platis, 2004. "The Business Cycle, Macroeconomic Shocks and the Cross-Section: The Growth of UK Quoted Companies," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 71(281), pages 299-318, May.
    8. Lechman, Ewa & Dominiak, Piotr, 2016. "Entrepreneurship vulnerability to business cycle. A new methodology for identification pro-cyclical and counter-cyclical patterns of entrepreneurial activity," MPRA Paper 68793, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Aki Kangasharju, 1998. "Regional variation in firm formation: Panel and cross-sectional data evidence from Finland," ERSA conference papers ersa98p134, European Regional Science Association.
    10. Klapper, Leora & Richmond, Christine, 2011. "Patterns of business creation, survival and growth: Evidence from Africa," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 32-44.
    11. Thai, Mai Thi Thanh & Turkina, Ekaterina, 2014. "Macro-level determinants of formal entrepreneurship versus informal entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 490-510.
    12. André Stel & José Millán & Concepción Román, 2014. "Investigating the impact of the technological environment on survival chances of employer entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 839-855, December.
    13. Ludo Visschers & Ana Millan & Matthias Kredler, 2014. "Great opportunities or poor alternatives: self-employment, unemployment and paid employment over the business cycle," 2014 Meeting Papers 597, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Varum, Celeste & Rocha, Vera Catarina & Valente da Silva, Hélder, 2014. "Economic slowdowns, hazard rates and foreign ownership," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 761-773.
    15. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
    16. Blind, Georg, 2011. "Investigating entrepreneurial spirit with the rule approach: why self-employment is on the decline in Japan," MPRA Paper 66749, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Koski, Heli & Sierimo, Carolina, 2003. "Entry and Exit in the ICT Sector - New Markets, New Industrial Dynamics?," Discussion Papers 847, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    18. Adongo, Jonathan O., 2017. "Legal jurisdiction, director liability law, and venture capitalists’ equity stakes in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 78-93.
    19. Jeng, Leslie A. & Wells, Philippe C., 2000. "The determinants of venture capital funding: evidence across countries," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 241-289, September.
    20. Groh, Alexander Peter & Wallmeroth, Johannes, 2016. "Determinants of venture capital investments in emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 104-132.
    21. Olof Ejermo & Jing Xiao, 2014. "Entrepreneurship and survival over the business cycle: how do new technology-based firms differ?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 411-426, August.
    22. repec:spr:intemj:v:13:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11365-017-0456-5 is not listed on IDEAS

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