The Fatality and Injury Costs of Expenditures
All production activities generate health risks to workers. This article employs input-output analysis in conjunction with job-risk data by industry to construct measures of the direct and indirect risks imposed by expenditures. Both fatalities and nonfatal injuries (which include illnesses) are considered. The occupational-risk component of expenditures is generally in the range of 3-4% of costs, with nonfatal injuries contributing the larger share. Expenditure levels that generate a fatality or a lost-workday injury are provided by industry, as are a variety of other measures that consider both created and avoided risks pertinent to risk-risk analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses, respectively. Copyright 1994 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
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