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International Entrepreneurship as a Dynamic Adaptive System: Towards a Grounded Theory


  • Hamid Etemad



This paper is based on a primary assumption: That the internationalizing smaller firms are different from large international firms, such as multinational enterprises (MNEs); and therefore, the process of internationalization and growth of smaller firms may not follow processes stipulated in the extant theories of MNEs and international business processes (IBPs). Even the primary orientations and theoretical constructs used in IBP and the theory of multinationals are different from those in entrepreneurship: While the former focuses on the institution of the "firm" the latter concentres on the "entrepreneur" as internationalizing entities. This paper will suggest a theoretical framework capable of integrating this prevailing fragmentation.

Suggested Citation

  • Hamid Etemad, 2004. "International Entrepreneurship as a Dynamic Adaptive System: Towards a Grounded Theory," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 2(1_2), pages 5-59, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jinten:v:2:y:2004:i:1_2:p:5-59

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    10. Coviello, Nicole E. & Jones, Marian V., 2004. "Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 485-508, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Coviello, Nicole E. & McDougall, Patricia P. & Oviatt, Benjamin M., 2011. "The emergence, advance and future of international entrepreneurship research — An introduction to the special forum," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 625-631.
    2. Eddy Tukamushaba & Laura Orobia & Babu George, 2011. "Development of a conceptual model to understand international social entrepreneurship and its application in the Ugandan context," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 282-298, December.
    3. Szyliowicz, Dara & Galvin, Tiffany, 2010. "Applying broader strokes: Extending institutional perspectives and agendas for international entrepreneurship research," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 317-332, August.
    4. Yakara Vasconcelos Pereira LEITE & Walter Fernando Araújo de MORAES & Viviane Santos SALAZAR, 2016. "International Entrepreneurship In Agribusiness," Revista Galega de Economía, University of Santiago de Compostela. Faculty of Economics and Business., vol. 25(1), pages 143-158.
    5. repec:kap:jinten:v:15:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10843-017-0220-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Howard Frederick & Erik Monsen, 2011. "New Zealand’s perfect storm of entrepreneurship and economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 187-204, September.
    7. José Ernesto Amorós & María Soledad Etchebarne & Isabel Torres Zapata & Christian Felzensztein, 2015. "International entrepreneurial firms in Chile: an exploratory profile," Serie Working Papers 29, Universidad del Desarrollo, School of Business and Economics.
    8. Peter J. Ras & Walter J. V. Vermeulen, 2009. "Sustainable production and the performance of South African entrepreneurs in a global supply chain. The case of South African table grape producers," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 325-340.
    9. repec:kap:jinten:v:15:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10843-017-0205-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Hamid Etemad, 2016. "Preface to the thematic special issue on international entrepreneurship in and from emerging economies," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-4, March.
    11. repec:kap:jinten:v:15:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10843-017-0207-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Hamid Etemad, 2015. "The principal components of the international entrepreneurial orientation-performance relation and its linkages with the key concepts and key constructs in the present issue," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 361-369, December.
    13. Julio del Junco & José Brás-dos-Santos, 2009. "How different are the entrepreneurs in the European Union internal market?—An exploratory cross-cultural analysis of German, Italian and Spanish entrepreneurs," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 135-162, June.
    14. Noelia Franco-Leal & Danny Soetanto & Carmen Camelo-Ordaz, 2016. "Do they matter? The role of non-academics in the internationalization of academic spin-offs," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 410-440, September.
    15. Amorós, José Ernesto & Etchebarne, María Soledad & Zapata, Isabel Torres & Felzensztein, Christian, 2016. "International entrepreneurial firms in Chile: An exploratory profile," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(6), pages 2052-2060.
    16. Ari Jantunen & Kaisu Puumalainen & Sami Saarenketo & Kalevi Kyläheiko, 2005. "Entrepreneurial Orientation, Dynamic Capabilities and International Performance," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 223-243, September.
    17. John Stayton & Vincent Mangematin, 2016. "Startup time, innovation and organizational emergence: A study of USA-based international technology ventures," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 373-409, September.
    18. Andrey Mikhailitchenko & Sanjay Varshney, 2016. "SME Internationalization in Emerging Markets: Symbiotic vs. Commensal Pathways," Journal of Marketing and Consumer Behaviour in Emerging Markets, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 1(3), pages 4-19.
    19. Louis Raymond & Josée St-Pierre & Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu & Thang Dinh, 2014. "Internationalization capabilities of SMEs: A comparative study of the manufacturing and industrial service sectors," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 230-253, September.
    20. Indujeeva Peiris & Michèle Akoorie & Paresha Sinha, 2012. "International entrepreneurship: A critical analysis of studies in the past two decades and future directions for research," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 279-324, December.
    21. repec:kap:jinten:v:15:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10843-017-0212-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Hamid Etemad, 2015. "The promise of a potential theoretical framework in international entrepreneurship: An entrepreneurial orientation-performance relation in internationalized context," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 89-95, June.
    23. Frank Keuper, 2005. "Gestaltung der Unternehmungskomplexität im Lichte von Ashby und Luhmann," Metrika: International Journal for Theoretical and Applied Statistics, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 211-238, June.

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