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Competition in Unit vs. Ad Valorem Taxes

Author

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  • Ben Lockwood

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Abstract

This paper shows that in a standard model of tax competition, the Nash equilibrium in capital taxes depends on whether these taxes are unit (as assumed in the literature) or ad valorem (as in reality). In a symmetric version of the model, general results are established: taxes and public good provision are both higher, and residents in all countries are better off, when countries compete in unit taxes, as opposed to ad valorem taxes. However, the difference in equilibrium outcomes is negligible when the number of countries is large.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Lockwood, 2004. "Competition in Unit vs. Ad Valorem Taxes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 11(6), pages 763-772, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:itaxpf:v:11:y:2004:i:6:p:763-772
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hikaru Ogawa, 2007. "Strategic Taxation on Mobile Capital with Spillover Externality," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 63(1), pages 33-45, March.
    2. repec:kap:itaxpf:v:24:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s10797-016-9435-y is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Laszlo Goerke & Frederik Herzberg & Thorsten Upmann, 2014. "Failure of ad valorem and specific tax equivalence under uncertainty," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 10(4), pages 387-402, December.
    4. Magnus Hoffmann & Marco Runkel, 2016. "A welfare comparison of ad valorem and unit tax regimes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 23(1), pages 140-157, February.
    5. Hendrik Vrijburg & Ruud A. de Mooij, 2010. "Enhanced Coorporation in an asymmetric model of Tax Competition," Working Papers 1002, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    6. Junichi Haraguchi & Hikaru Ogawa, 2016. "Leadership in Tax Ccompetition with Fiscal Equalization Transfers ," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1031, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    7. Nobuo Akai & Hikaru Ogawa & Yoshitomo Ogawa, 2011. "Endogenous choice on tax instruments in a tax competition model: unit tax versus ad valorem tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 18(5), pages 495-506, October.
    8. Aiura, Hiroshi & Ogawa, Hikaru, 2013. "Unit tax versus ad valorem tax: A tax competition model with cross-border shopping," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 30-38.
    9. Charles Blackorby & Sushama Murty, 2013. "Unit Versus Ad Valorem Taxes: The Private Ownership of Monopoly in General Equilibrium," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 15(4), pages 547-579, August.
    10. MORITA Tadashi & OGAWA Yoshitomo & ONO Yoshiyasu, 2017. "Corporate Tax Competition in the Presence of Unemployment," Discussion papers 17118, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. Max Franks & Ottmar Edenhofer & Kai Lessmann, 2017. "Why Finance Ministers Favor Carbon Taxes, Even If They Do Not Take Climate Change into Account," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 68(3), pages 445-472, November.
    12. Burbidge, John & Cuff, Katherine, 2005. "Capital tax competition and returns to scale," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 353-373, July.
    13. Akira Yakita, 2014. "Capital Tax Competition and Cooperation with Endogenous Capital Formation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 459-468, August.
    14. Devereux, Michael P. & Lockwood, Ben & Redoano, Michela, 2008. "Do countries compete over corporate tax rates?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1210-1235, June.
    15. Hendrik Vrijburg & Ruud Mooij, 2016. "Tax rates as strategic substitutes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 23(1), pages 2-24, February.
    16. Hiroshi Aiura & Hikaru Ogawa, 2016. "Indirect Taxes in the Cross-border Shopping Model: A Monopolistic Competition Approach," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1014, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    17. repec:eee:poleco:v:49:y:2017:i:c:p:1-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Brangewitz, Sonja & Brockhoff, Sarah, 2014. "Stability of coalitional equilibria within repeated tax competition," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 461, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    19. Francisco Galera & Isabel Rodríguez-Tejedo & Juan C. Molero, 2012. "Technology Choice and Unit vs Ad Valorem Tax," Faculty Working Papers 18/12, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
    20. Blackorby, Charles & Murty, Sushama, 2007. "Unit versus ad valorem taxes: Monopoly in general equilibrium," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3-4), pages 817-822, April.
    21. Cassette, Aurélie & Di Porto, Edoardo & Foremny, Dirk, 2012. "Strategic fiscal interaction across borders: Evidence from French and German local governments along the Rhine Valley," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 17-30.
    22. Ogawa, Hikaru, 2016. "When ad valorem tax prevails in international tax competition," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-9.

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