IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Income and Expenditure Switching among the Impoverished during Structural Adjustment in India


  • Gaiha, Raghav


The impoverishment during 1991-93 was largely a result of policy reforms. In the absence of income switching, the impoverishment would have been greater. The patterns of income switching differed among the three Indian states, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Confining the analysis to household expenditure on food, medical care and education, however, little, if any, expenditure switching occurred. To some extent, the effects of household expenditure cuts were compounded by cuts in public expenditure. But, given the aggregate expenditure categories, there is a risk of overstating the effects on the poor. A more fundamental concern nonetheless remains. Given the acute deprivation of a large segment of the rural population, it is imperative that public provision of basic goods and services is strengthened. A case in point is the public distribution system for food (PDS). Despite the revamping, the benefits to the poor have not increased while the subsidy has. Short of drastic reforms, it is unlikely that the cost-effectiveness of the PDS will improve. Copyright 2002 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Suggested Citation

  • Gaiha, Raghav, 2002. "Income and Expenditure Switching among the Impoverished during Structural Adjustment in India," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 221-252.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:ecopln:v:35:y:2002:i:3:p:221-52

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:ecopln:v:35:y:2002:i:3:p:221-52. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.