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A Bivariate Probit Examination of Financial and Volunteer Problems of Non-Profit Sport Clubs


  • Dennis Coates

    () (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)

  • Pamela Wicker

    () (German Sport University Cologne)

  • Svenja Feiler

    () (German Sport University Cologne)

  • Christoph Breuer

    () (German Sport University Cologne)


Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence that sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany, a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.

Suggested Citation

  • Dennis Coates & Pamela Wicker & Svenja Feiler & Christoph Breuer, 2014. "A Bivariate Probit Examination of Financial and Volunteer Problems of Non-Profit Sport Clubs," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 9(3), pages 230-248, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:jsf:intjsf:v:9:y:2014:i:3:p:230-248

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:spomar:v:21:y:2018:i:3:p:307-320 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Pamela Wicker & Christoph Breuer, 2015. "How the Economic and Financial Situation of the Community Affects Sport Clubs’ Resources: Evidence from Multi-Level Models," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-18, February.
    3. repec:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:4:p:325-337 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    financial resources; volunteers; external funding; non-profit organization; bivariate probit model;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism


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