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Seeking Equilibrium Leads to Chaos: Multiple Equilibria Regulation Model


  • Ioannis D Katerelos


  • Andreas G. Koulouris



In this paper, we shall present a model of opinion dynamics called Multiple Equilibria Regulation (MER) Model which, concerning social equilibrium, is based on the Bounded Confidence (BC) Model’s procedures and, it takes under consideration an agents’ internal (“intra-individual†) regulation structure among different opinions regarding the same social issue. First, we give a detailed description of the model and define its parameters. Then, we explore this nonlinear model by a series of computer simulations for a variety of parameter’ values. Next, we examine under what conditions the model exhibits sensitive dependence on initial conditions and, finally, we calculate the Lyapunov Exponents and the Information Entropy. Our results show that for certain parameter’ values, the system exhibits sensitivity of final state to initial state, thus it is chaotic (deterministic and unpredictable). Hence, by combining two psychosocial principles that both tend to certainty (stability) we obtain an uncertainty (unpredictability) concerning the outcome of the system.

Suggested Citation

  • Ioannis D Katerelos & Andreas G. Koulouris, 2004. "Seeking Equilibrium Leads to Chaos: Multiple Equilibria Regulation Model," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 7(2), pages 1-4.
  • Handle: RePEc:jas:jasssj:2003-43-2

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hare, M & Deadman, P, 2004. "Further towards a taxonomy of agent-based simulation models in environmental management," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 25-40.
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    Cited by:

    1. Andreas Koulouris & Ioannis Katerelos & Theodore Tsekeris, 2013. "Multi-Equilibria Regulation Agent-Based Model of Opinion Dynamics in Social Networks," Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems - scientific journal, Croatian Interdisciplinary Society Provider Homepage:, vol. 11(1), pages 51-70.


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