The Speed and Cost of Industrial Innovation in Japan and the United States: External vs. Internal Technology
This study, based on detailed data obtained from carefully selected samples of about 200 Japanese and American firms, seems to be the first comprehensive empirical investigation of the differences between Japan and the United States in innovation cost and time. Whereas the Japanese have substantial advantages in this regard in some industries (notably machinery), they do not seem to have any substantial advantage in others (notably chemicals). Whereas they have great advantages in carrying out innovations based on external technology, they do not seem to have any in carrying out innovations based on internal technology. Japanese firms allocate their resources quite differently than do American firms, a larger percentage of total innovation cost being devoted to tooling and manufacturing equipment and facilities, a smaller percentage being devoted to marketing startup. A large part of America's problem in this regard seems to be due to its apparent inability to match Japan as a quick and effective user of external technology.
Volume (Year): 34 (1988)
Issue (Month): 10 (October)
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