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To difference or not to difference: a Monte Carlo investigation of inference in vector autoregression models

Author

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  • Richard A. Ashley
  • Randal J. Verbrugge

Abstract

It is often unclear whether time series displaying substantial persistence should be modelled as a vector autoregression in levels (perhaps with a trend term) or in differences. The impact of this decision on inference is examined here using Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, the size and power of variable inclusion (Granger causality) tests and the coverage of impulse response function confidence intervals are examined for simulated vector autoregression models using a variety of estimation techniques. We conclude that testing should be done using differenced regressors, but that overdifferencing a model yields poor impulse response function confidence interval coverage; modelling in Hodrick-Prescott filtered levels yields poor results in any case. We find that the lag-augmented vector autoregression method suggested by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) – which models the level of the series but allows for variable inclusion testing on changes in the series – performs well for both Granger causality testing and impulse response function estimation.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard A. Ashley & Randal J. Verbrugge, 2009. "To difference or not to difference: a Monte Carlo investigation of inference in vector autoregression models," International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 1(3), pages 242-274.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:injdan:v:1:y:2009:i:3:p:242-274
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Andrea BASTIANIN & Matteo MANERA, 2015. "How Does Stock Market Volatility React to Oil Shocks?," Departmental Working Papers 2015-09, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    2. Ashley, Richard & Verbrugge, Randal, 2015. "Persistence Dependence in Empirical Relations: The Velocity of Money," Working Paper 1530, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    3. Pesavento, Elena & Rossi, Barbara, 2007. "Impulse response confidence intervals for persistent data: What have we learned?," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2398-2412, July.
    4. Johann Burgstaller, 2009. "When and why do Austrian companies issue shares?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 229-244, August.
    5. Johann Burgstaller, 2006. "Bank income and profits over the business and interest rate cycle," Economics working papers 2006-11, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    6. Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr. & Ceballos, Alejandro & Walke, Adam G., 2015. "Short-Term Forecasting Analysis for Municipal Water Demand," MPRA Paper 78259, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Aug 2015.
    7. Ryan R. Brady & Derek Stimel & Steven Sumner, 2012. "A Time Series Test of the Direct Wealth Effect," Departmental Working Papers 40, United States Naval Academy Department of Economics.
    8. Nady Rapelanoro, 2017. "Hoarding international reserves and global liquidity expansion, what are the links and do they matter?," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-13, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    9. Richard A. Ashley & Randall J. Verbrugge., 2006. "Mis-Specification in Phillips Curve Regressions: Quantifying Frequency Dependence in This Relationship While Allowing for Feedback," Working Papers e06-11, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
    10. Richard A. Ashley. & Randall J. Verbrugge., 2006. "Mis-Specification and Frequency Dependence in a New Keynesian Phillips Curve," Working Papers e06-12, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
    11. Johann Burgstaller, 2005. "Interest rate pass-through estimates from vector autoregressive models," Economics working papers 2005-10, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    12. Thesia I. Garner & Randal Verbrugge, 2007. "Puzzling Divergence of U.S. Rents and User Costs, 1980-2004: Summary and Extensions," Working Papers 409, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
    13. Ryan R. Brady & Derek Stimel & Steven Sumner, 2014. "The Rise of the Housing-Wealth Effect: Counterfactual Impulse Response Analysis," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 4, pages 1-17, November.
    14. Johann Burgstaller, 2006. "The cyclicality of interest rate spreads in Austria: Evidence for a financial decelerator?," Economics working papers 2006-02, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    15. Brady, Ryan R., 2014. "The spatial diffusion of regional housing prices across U.S. states," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 150-166.
    16. Brady Ryan R & Stimel Derek S, 2011. "How the Housing and Financial Wealth Effects Have Changed over Time," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-45, August.
    17. Gaston Giordana & Ingmar Schumacher, 2012. "Macroeconomic Conditions and Leverage in Monetary Financial Institutions: Comparing European countries and Luxembourg," BCL working papers 77, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
    18. Banu Simmons-Süer, 2013. "Immobilienpreise, Hypothekarkredite und Wohnbauinvestitionen," KOF Analysen, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, vol. 7(3), pages 119-131, September.
    19. Bentour, El Mostafa, 2013. "Should Moroccan Officials Depend on the Workers’ Remittances to Finance the Current Account Deficit?," MPRA Paper 52290, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 May 2013.
    20. Florence Bouvet & Ryan Brady & Sharmila King, 2013. "Debt Contagion in Europe: A Panel-VAR Analysis," Departmental Working Papers 44, United States Naval Academy Department of Economics.
    21. Florence Bouvet & Ryan Brady & Sharmila King, 2013. "Debt Contagion in Europe: A Panel-Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Analysis," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(4), pages 1-23, December.
    22. Sangyeon Hwang & Hyejoon Im, 2017. "International Trade Finance and Exports: Evidence from Korean Bank-Intermediated Trade Finance Instruments," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 319-346, April.

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