IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does an environmental Kuznets curve exist for changing land use? Empirical evidence from major states of India


  • Pushpam Kumar
  • Suresh Chand Aggarwal


Varied environmental quality in terms of NOx, SOx etc. has been demonstrated as being associated with the per capita income of a specific region or/country, known as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the form of an inverted U-shaped curve. Recently, many attempts have been made to examine this relationship in different contexts. This paper analyses the change in land-use pattern for 19 major states of India for 1963–64 to 1995–96. By specifying a suitable model, cropped area, removal of forest cover (deforestation) and pasture area have separately been regressed on per capita income, yield and population density. Besides OLS, the models for the analysis included the Kmenta model, the fixed effect model and the random effect model. Stationarity and cointegration have also been tested for the variables. Results from the analysis indicate the presence of an EKC for crop area at an income level between Rs.1347 and Rs.1440 and for pasture area between the income levels of Rs.881 and Rs.871. The turning point is found to be around Rs.811 for total forest area. The state level analysis confirms the existence of a turning point for crop area for the states of Punjab and Haryana and for total forest area for the states of Punjab and Maharastra.

Suggested Citation

  • Pushpam Kumar & Suresh Chand Aggarwal, 2003. "Does an environmental Kuznets curve exist for changing land use? Empirical evidence from major states of India," International Journal of Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(2), pages 231-245.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijsusd:v:6:y:2003:i:2:p:231-245

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ids:ijsusd:v:6:y:2003:i:2:p:231-245. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Carmel O'Grady). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.